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fo X 

3 1833 01777 1434 




April, 1902 


January, 1903 

Published by 


Somerville, Mass. 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 

Vol. 1 





APRIL, 1902 



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Somerville Historical Society 

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Officers of Sontewilie Historical Society. 


President, John F. Ayer. 

First Vice-President . . . Luther B. Piilsbury. 

Second Vice-President, .... . . . Levi L. Hawes. 

Third Vice-President, Seth Mason. 

Recording Secretary, Florence E. Carr. 

Corresponding Secretary, ....... Mrs. V. E. Ayer. 

Treasurer, . . . Oliver Bacon. 

Librarian and Curator Alfred M. Cutler. 


Charles D. Elliot, L. Roger Wentworth, Anna P. Vinal. 

historic Sites. 

J. 0. Hayden, Chairman, Charles D. Elliot, 

Dr. E. C. Booth. 

€ssay$ ana Addresses. 

L. B. Piilsbury, Chairman, Anna P. Vinal, 

John F. Ayer, Lizzie F. Wait, 

Charles D. Elliot, Mrs. V. E. Ayer. 

Library and Cabinet. 

Alfred M. Cutler, Chairman, L. P. Sanborn, 

Levi L k Hawes, Mrs. H. E. Heald.- 


B. B. D. Bourne, Chairman, Chas. W. Colman. 

(With one other to be chosen by the committee.) 

Press and Clippings. 

Anna P. Vinal, Chairman, Mary A. Haley, 

M. Agnes Hunt, Lucy M. Stone, 

Marion Knapp. 


T4rs. Barbara Galpin, Chairman, Sara A. Stone, 

,Sam Walter Foss, Nelson H. Grover, 

Frank M. Hawes, Charles I.Shepard. 


Seth Mason, Chairman, Mrs. E. S. Hayes, 

Mrs. L. B. Piilsbury, Miss E. A. Waters, 

Mrs. H. E. Heald. 

military Kecords. 

Col. E. C. Bennett, Chairman, John H. Dusseault, 

Levi L. Hawes. 


Th» President, The First Vice-President, The Treasurer. 




Elbridge Streeter Brooks, the subject of this memorial, was 
born in Lowell April 14, 1846. His father, Elbridge Gerry 
Brooks, was a prominent minister in the Universalist church, 
and one of the organizing spirits of that denomination. Later 
he became the first general secretary of the Universalist general 
convention. The elder Brooks, who had the reputation of being 
a fearless, upright, earnest, and eloquent preacher, received the 
degree of doctor of divinity from Tufts College, The mother, 
Martha Fowle (Munroe) Brooks, was a cultivated and home- 
making Christian gentlewoman, descended from the Munroes, 
who fought so bravely at Lexington, and whose farm lands and 
grist mills were near the site of General Putnam's earthworks on 
Prospect hill. 

The Rev. Anson Titus, in an appreciative article, printed in 
the Somerville Journal, February 21, 1902, thus speaks of Mr. 
Brooks' ancestors : — 

"Mr. Brooks was of rugged Puritan ancestry. His paternal 
family was of the best of ancient Kittery on the coast of Maine; 
his maternal ancestry was of Chariest own and Lexington stock. 
His father was a man forceful and eminent in the ministry of the 
Universalist church. His grandfather, Oliver Brooks, was of 
Eliot, Me., but who, with his wife, Susan Home, resided in Ports- 
mouth, N. H. The great-grandfather was William Brooks, who 
was among the first to respond to the alarm from Lexington, and 

wasa soldier on these hills of Somerville at Fort No. 1 ; probably 
at Bunker Hill, and certainly was present during the large part 
of the siege of Boston. 

"The patriot, William Brooks, was a private in Tobias Fer- 
rold's company, the regiment of Colonel James Scammon, during 
those eventful days. Before the war of the Revolution closed, he 
married Mary Gowell. His other ancestors., Joshua Brooks and 
William Brooks, in ancient Kittery, allied themselves with the 
Fogg and Staple families, and wrought valiant service in defend- 
ing the borderlands between the civilization of the towns of New 
England and the wilderness." 

Portions of Mr. Brooks' early boyhood were passed in Bath, 
Me., and Lynn, Mass., where his father had parishes, and when 
thirteen years of age he moved with his parents to New York 
city, when his father assumed charge of a parish in the metropolis. 

In 1861 Mr. Brooks entered (he Free academy, now the 
college of the city of New York, taking excellent rank in litera- 
ture, history, and the classics, but left in [he middle of his junior 
year to enter the publishing house of 1). Appleton & Co. as a 

We next find him in the publishing houses of J. B. Ford & 
Co. and Sheldon & Co. In the fall of 187G he took charge of 
the English educational and subscription department of the 
German publishing house of E. Steiger & Co., remaining there 
until December, 1879, when he joined the editorial staff of the 
Publishers' Weekly, the organ of the book publishers' trade. 
From 1883 to 1885 he was connected with the' staff of the Brook- 
lyn Daily Times as reviser, literary editor, and dramatic critic, 
and in the latter year was invited to become one of the associate 
editors of the St. Nicholas. 

Mr. Brooks removed to Boston in 1887, to join the newly- 
formed publishing corporation of D. Lothrop company as editor 
to the corporation. lie remained there till the death of Mr. 
Lothrop, and the business troubles of the house in 1802. Upon 
the reorganization of the concern, in January, 1895, he returned 

to the post of literary adviser, which he held up to the time of 
his death. He removed to Somerville in 1887, and had ever 
since lived here. 

That Mr. Brooks' books should be mainly historical and 
patriotic naturally follows from the nature of his ancestry and 
the quality of the Yankee blood which flowed through his veins. 
Of the seventy minutemen in Hue at the battle or Lexington, 
eleven were relatives on his mother's side. Three of the names 
on the monument erected to the memory of the fallen heroes were 
those of blood relations; the first is that of Ensign Robert Mun- 
roe, his great-great-uncle. His great-grandfather also partici- 
pated in the battle. His paternal grandfather was a jolly priva- 
teer in the war of 181%, and it is not to be wondered at that Mr. 
Brooks had his share of fighting blood. That he should spend 
his last years on such historic ground as Prospect hill is singu- 
larly appropriate. 

Always during his business and editorial life he was a busy 
writer. His object seemed to have been to instruct and interest 
the young people. His first marked success was the series of 
"Historic Boys'' and "Historic Girls," which originally appeared 
in the St. Nicholas Magazine in 188.") and 188G. His first book 
was written as a labor of love, and presented the life of his father, 
who died in 1876. The volume was published in 1881. 

The titles of other volumes which he has placed before the 
public, and which have been read so widely, are as follows: "In 
Leisler's Times," "In No Man's Land," "Storied Holidays." 
"The American Indian," "The Story of the American Sailor," 
"The American Soldier," "Chivalric Days," "The True Story of 
the United States of America," "The True Story of Christopher 
Columbus," "A Boy of the First Empire'," "The Century Book 
for Young Americans," "The Children's Lives of Great Men." 
"The True Story of George Washington," "The True Story oi 
Abraham Lincoln/' "The True Story of U. S. Grant," "The True 
Story of Benjamin Franklin." "The True Story of Lafayette," 
"The Story of New York," in Bine and White," "The Boy 


Life of Napoleon," "Great Cities of the World," ''Out of Doors 
with Tennyson," and "Longfellow Remembrance Book." 

Some of his latest books were "Under the Allied Flags: A 
Boy's Adventures in China During the Boxer Revolt"; "With 
Lawton and Roberts"; "In Defense of the Flag: A Boy's Ad- 
ventures in Spain and Cuba in the War of 1898"; "The Story of 
the Nineteenth Century"; and "The Story of Our War with 

In a conversation several year-: ago, Mr. Brooks said that 
his favorite work was writing historical stories. "My point," he 
continued, "is that boys and girls have, been the same in all ages 
of the world. They have grown better, of course, as the world 
has progressed — I am optimist enough to believe that — but their 
essential natures are the same. In writing for them, it is my 
endeavor to throw aside the dead bones of history, and to put a 
living, everyday interest into the historical story. 

"I believe in leading children gradually, and that you cannot 
begin too early with healthful and instructive reading, especially 
that of a patriotic nature. I like to work for the boys and girls; 
it is very satisfactory in many ways, though there are some dis- 
couragements. One thing I never do, and that is 'write down' 
to children; they knou r more than their elders give them credit 
for, and the proper way is to write to lift them up. 

"Most of my books lean toward the boys. Girls will read 
a boy's book, but boys, as a rule, won't look at a book that is in- 
tended for girls. 

"I have now as many as fifteen books in my mind which I 
hope in time to write." Since this remark, made nearly seven 
years ago, Mr. Brooks has completed about a score of books. 

One of his most popular volumes, "The Century Book for 
Young Americans," an extremely readable book on the Ameri- 
can 'government, which was issued a few years ago by the Cen- 
tury company, had the unprecedented sale of 20,000 volumes in 
the first three months after its publication. 

In December, 1891, Mr. Brooks wrote a prize story, pub- 

lished dn the Detroit Free Press, entitled "A Son of Issachar/' of 
which Mr. Brooks said : "It was written to see if a religious novel 
would have a chance with a secular public, and the result easily 
proved that such was possible. I maintained, as is seen in the 
case of 'Ben ITur,' that there is no ground so favorable for a real 
romance as Bible history." 

Mr. Brooks was a member of the Authors' Club of New 
York, which includes the leading authors of the country, and 
also of several historical societies. At the time of his death he 
was first vice-president of the Sornerville Historical Society. 
While his writings were very widely read, he was of a retiring 
disposition, and evinced a strong dislike of notoriety and display. 
He received the honorary degree of master of arts from Tufts 
College in 1887. He leaves a wife and two daughters, the Misses 
Geraldine and Christine Brooks, both of whom resided with their 
distinguished father. Miss Geraldine Brooks has already made 
a mark in historical literature, having published two volumes. 

Mr. Brooks died Tuesday morning, January 7, 1902, at his 
home, 44 Walnut street. Funeral services were held on the 
following Thursday at 2 o'clock. In the large gathering of 
friends present were men and women prominent in literary walks 
of life. The services were conducted by the Rev. William 11. 
Pierson, pastor of the First Unitarian church, and included read- 
ing from the Scriptures, the reading of extracts from Mr. Brooks' 
works, and prayer. 

Among the floral tributes were those from the Sornerville 
Historical Society, and a wreath of violets and roses "from a few 
of the many Sornerville boys who loved his books." 

After the services the remains were taken to Mount Auburn 
for cremation. The pall-bearers were Irving Bacheller, Frank 
Hoyt, Henry Morill, the last two representing the Lothrop com- 
pany, and Arthur T. Kidder, of Sornerville. 

The following is from the tribute of Sam Walter Foss. It 
appeared in the Sornerville Journal fur January 10. and our 
biographical sketch of Mr. Brooks is also quoted from that 
paper : — 

Elbrtfcae Streeter JBroofcs as a Mutter ant) fftienfc 

The death of Elbridge S. Brooks will be lamented through- 
out the English-reading world; for he was an author of estab- 
lished fame, at the height of his productive period, with an appar- 
ent prospect of producing as man) 1 good books in the future as 
he had already produced in the past. The gulf stream of his life 
had not as yet flowed into the Arctic winter of age. His powers 
were unabated, his literary designs many, and his genial enthu- 
siasms and high ambitions as warm as ever. So it is natural for 
the literary world, and for the thousands who had learned to 
await the appearance of his successive books, to feel sorrow at 
his death. But sorrow for the author by the world at large can- 
not approach the grief of his friend-, who knew the man himself. 
Of course the people who were brought into frequent contact 
with Mr. Brooks knew that he was an author of many works that 
had secured the approbation of the reading world. But we who 
knew him by intimate contact seldom thought of him as an 
author at all. He had none of the affectations of authorship; he 
was utterly without lettered pride; he never "'talked like a book," 
and he never posed like a celebrity. Success that makes small 
men vain never contracted the largeness of his heart or soul. 
His heart was like a wayside inn, where every traveler could rest. 
Those who knew the man could understand why his books found 
so many responsive readers. He reached men because he loved 

Mr. Brooks is chiefly known as the author of books for the 
young. This popular conception of him is based on good rea- 
sons, but we should not be misled 1>\ it. I lis books are certainly 
books very popular with the young, but no man or woman is too 
old to find them readable. He was wise enough to know that a 
healthy boy is a man in his hopeSj and a good Mian is a boy in 
his memories. A man without a boy's heart in his breast is as 


tragic a failure as a boy without a man's manliness in his n 
Mr. Brooks knew this, and so, very sensibly, he wrote for 5 
people very much as he would write for older people. Wh< .. 1 
wrote a book the boy in his heart dictated to the man in his 
and so the book was a book that either a man or boy 
read. He knew, what some writers of juveniles never 
that a boy becomes wise very young. So he knew better tl 
write patronizingly to his youthful readers. He never sto 
a high pedestal and shouted moral platitudes down to them. H 
never told them to be good. He made them good, in the onl 
way that a man or a. boy can be made good, by making 
think good thoughts. I lis fiction, in the highest sense of th 
word, is true; but his history is never fiction. He took unu>u3 
pains to verify all historical statements and allusions. He 
voluminous writer, but he was not voluminous at the expense c 
accuracy and painstaking labor. He had a genius for 

Somerville w r as honored in being the residence of s 
man. He sent out work from here that traveled far and re; 
many firesides. Thousands knew him through his book 
called his books good. We who knew the man also call hi 
books good; but we call the man better than his book.-. 

At a meeting of the council of the Somerville Hi-: 
Society, held Wednesday evening, January 8, to take actio 
the death of Elbridge S. Brooks, first vice-president of th 
ciety, a committee, consisting of President John F. Aye 
President Charles D. Elliot, and Vice-President L. B. Pills 
was appointed to represent the society at the funeral; a c< i 
tee was also appointed to prepare a suitable memorial - 

Under the auspices of this society a memorial ser\v 
held Sunday afternoon, February 111, in the Unitarian churc 


Highland avenue, in honor of the late Elbridge Streeter Brooks, 
story-writer and historian. Besides the other exercises there 
was prayer by President Capen of Tufts College; introductory 
remarks by John F. Aver, president of the Historical Society; 
addresses by J. L. Harbour, one of the editors of the Youth's 
Companion; Hezekiah Butterworth, author and editor, and Rev. 
William H. Pierson, Mr. Brooks' pastor ; and the singing of a 
hymn written by Sam Walter Foss. 

Hfcfcress b£ 3obn ff. H\>er 

"At the time of the organization of the Historical Society, 
Mr. Brooks was elected a vice-president. His work as a writer 
of historical books and his interest in all things historical in his 
adopted city clearly entitled him to this recognition. 

"His interest in the society never wavered. As a member 
of the council, his training, his occupation, and his practical ideas 
were of great and increasing value as the years went by. 

"Because of these things, primarily because of his acknowl- 
edged ability as a writer of authentic history tor the young, pre- 
senting, as he did, the study of history in its most attractive form 
to the impressible minds of youth, because of his modesty and 
gentlemanly bearing, because of the honorable record he had 
made among his contemporaries, and more especially because of 
his upright and manly life in our midst, we, as an organization, 
have thought it eminently fit and proper to come up here to-day 
and lay upon this altar an offering of our appreciation and regard. 

"Nor would we forget the cherished family of our friend, — 
the home he loved, now, alas! so desolate; but, in so far as it is 
possible, we desire to extend our heartfelt sympathy, and so pene- 
trate the gloom with a ray of sunlight, it may be, not incompatible 
with the changed conditions of the one, or the extreme unutter- 
able loneliness of the other. 


"Such a man, living in our midst, diligent, painstaking, un- 
selfish, gifted with the power to interest and instruct the youth 
the country over in the great movements and events of the j 
and able to clearly set before them the characters, the comn 
ing greatness of the famous men of our nation, as fit object 
their respect and emulation, may peradventure be doing as mm h 
for the future of the country, for the city's good name at . 
and abroad, for the cause of good citizenship, as he who gi\ 
his abundance to establish institutions of learning, or for philan- 
thropic or charitable purposes, — as much as the individual 1- 
lator or statesman, it may be, or even as much as he who d 
his sword in his country's defense, or for the cause of humanit; 

"The Somerville Historical Society was honored by 
official connection with it of Elbridge Streeter Brooks. It 
sires to go upon record as appreciating his interest in the 
organization, his tireless industry in research, his devotion to 
and his success in the writing of many historical books.'' 

Bbfcress bp 5. X. ibavbonr of tbe Boutb's Com* 


"I feel it to be a great privilege to be given the Opportunity 
of paying a brief tribute of afifection and respect to the memory 
of a man like Elbridge S. Brooks. I wish that I might more till . 
say all that I would like to say and all that ought to be said i 
him. I am glad that there are'others here who can say bettei 
than I the true and tender words you have come to hear in 
memory of Mr. Brooks. I have but one thing to regret in eon 
nection with my acquaintance with* Mr. Brooks, ami that 
fact that I knew him for such a little while. But from th< 
day of my meeting with him 1 Felt that I had known him fi 
long time, and we did not meet as strangers. And now th; 
has gone from us, I think of him as of some comrade 


years, and I am sure that I shall miss him quite as much as many 
of you whose privilege it has been to know him long before 
that privilege was mine. 

''I have seen Mr. Brooks under varying conditions. I have 
been a guest in his home, and he has been a welcome guest in my 
own home. I have seen him at his desk and in the social world. 
I have seen him in health, and I have seen him when the precious 
heritage of health was no longer his. But 1 have never seen -him 
when he was not brave, and cheery, and kindly. He knew, as I 
knew, the last time I saw him, that the t-\\d was not far distant, 
but there was no complaint and no repining. I remember that 
when I said good-bye to him the last time 1 saw him, and I added 
that I hoped that he would feel better very soon, he smiled, but 
shook his head. A less courageous man, a man of less self-poise, 
and serenity, and sweetness of spirit, would have made some out- 
cry against the cruel hand of fate that held the decree of death 
for him at a time when life seemed fullest of hopes and of har- 
monies. The memory of Mr. Brooks' unfailing calmness and 
courage in those last days will give many of us more faith and 
more courage for our own battle. He seemed in his outward 
attitude to be verifying the words of one of our modern poets, 
who has written that : — 

"'Death is delightful. Death is dawn— 
The waking from a weary night 
Of fevers unto truth and light.' 

"It was but yesterday that I picked up a magazine for the 
young, and I found in it, under the title of 'Safe Books for the 
Young/ several of Mr. Brooks' volumes. The world can ill 
afford to lose a man who is writing safe books for the young in 
an age. when so many unsafe books for onr boys and girls are 
being written. The world never needed a man like Elbridge 
Brooks more than it needed him when he was taken away. 
When he went out of this life, many a man lost a steadfast and 


sympathetic friend, and the world of literature a potent power I 
good. The loss to those who were allied to him by ties of kin- 
ship and loved him best no man may measure. 

"A man of high ideals and tireless energy, Mr. Bro 
could not be other than a useful man in the world. Interested in 
all that counts for anything in the uplifting of humanity, ready to 
give freely of his time, and glad to lend his influence to anythi 
helpful in the town in which he lived, he attained to the high dis- 
tinction of being a useful man in the community. That the com- 
munity in which he lived appreciated his services and honored 
him is evidenced by this service to his memory. 

"The secret of the influence for good exerted by Elbridg 
Brooks lay in the fact that he always spoke and wrote out of bl- 
own best nature. His best self was not hidden. It is true tl 
'no one can really speak to men the words that uplift and in 
vigorate who does not first develop this inward force, this vic- 
torious faith in the truth as he sees it.' 

"Elbridge Brooks was a man who tried to do his full duty ; 
a man, as a husband, as a father, as a citizen, and as a \vrit< 
whose work must influence for good or evil, and, as Phillip! 
Brooks once said, 'This truth comes to us more and more 
longer we live, that on what field or in what uniform, or with 
what aims we do our duty matters very little, or even what our 
duty is, great or small, splendid or obscure. Only to find our 
duty certainly and somewhere, somehow do it faithfully, make; 
us good, strong, happy, and useful men, and tunes our lives int 
some feeble echo of the life of God/ 

"We are here to-day to honor the memory of a man wh< 
did his duty, and who lived a faithful, earnest, and sincere lif< . 
and who made the world better because of his sojourn in it. To 
have done this is to have lived worthily and to have made the 
most and the best of life. To have done this is to live long in the 
affections of those we leave behind when we have crossed the I 
and the name of Elbridge Brooks will linger long in the memory 
of those who knew him best." 


Bfcfcress b£ /!l>r. Buttenvortb 

After a very touching solo by Miss Clark, entitled ''God 
shall wipe away all tears from their eyes," Hezekiah Butterworth 
spoke words of eloquent eulogy. "A builder of men," he said, 
"has gone from among us. A man who lived for what he could 
do for others, whose one desire and ideal was that he might make 
an impression upon the young man of America and lift him to 
higher standards, has joined the choir invisible." 

Continuing, he said : "I am not going to speak of his forty 
or more books, or the work that he did on I In- St. Nicholas or 
the Wide Awake, but of him as an inspirer of young life, — of a 
man, himself inspired, who was the cause of inspiration in 

Mr. Butterworth told how William Lloyd Garrison had 
touched John G. Whittier, then a young man, on the shoulder, 
and said, "You are a poet," and how Whittier, in turn, said the 
same to Lucy Larcom in her early life, and the results which 
followed from the words of encouragement. N. Parker Willis 
and James T. Fields were others who inspired young writers. 
In the same way, he said, Mr. Brooks had words of encourage- 
ment for young authors, and helped them along the difficult path- 
way to success. Among the cases he cited without giving names 
was "one whose works have outsold nearly all others in the last 
ten or twenty years, and who had been told by Mr. Brooks what 
to do, and how to do it, in order to make his writings a success. 
Mr. Brooks told this man how to make the imperfect perfect, and 
so was produced one of the most popular books ('Eben Holden, 1 
presumably) of the present age. 

"Men who build, men who have influence like Mr. Brooks, 
live on and on, and their intluence continually increases. Mr. 
Brooks once said to me: 'My desire is to write historical books 
that will make the past live again.' 


"His name may be swallowed tip in the great number 
names of persons writing for beneficent purposes, but Elbridge ': 
Brooks has fulfilled his ideals, and done a work in this generatio 
whose influence will never perish. To write a book of influenc 
is the greatest contribution a man can make. Mr. Brooks - 
forty such books. The memory of Elbridge Brooks is one thai 
'will smell sweet and blossom in the dust/ as one who helped and 
blessed mankind." 

a&fcress In? lRev>. /!Di\ KMerson 

Rev. William H. Pierson, pastor of the church, spoke intei 
estingly of the life and character of Mr. Brooks. "Mr. Brooks 
he said, "has done an intellectual work of great value to man- 
kind. He knew, as many do not dream or imagine, something 
of the burden, the care, and anxiety of intellectual toil, and also 
of the joy and pleasure of its success. 

"His death seems untimely, and sometimes we ask wh 
should he be stricken down. Though his years seem cut pre 
maturely short, his life was well lived, and his work well done 
He sought to inspire in the young the great deeds of those who 
have gone before. 

"How nobly he did his work! I fear he put too much 
his strength into it. Still, through his volumes he speaks and 
will speak to the young for generations. 

"He was brave, patient, sensible, and lovable in the disap- 
pointment that came with the loss of sight and broken health. 

" 'Dead he lay among 4ns books, 

The peace of God was in his looks.' ' 

The following hymn, written by Sam Walter Foss, was tl 
sung by the congregation : — 


His were the tales of olden days, 
Of patriot deeds, in valor'- praise; 
Tales of the men who made us great, 
And broke our bonds and built the state. 

Strong words of hope he scattered wide 

To many a listening fireside, 

Of civic worth in days gone by, 

Of names and fames that will not die. 

He told of mighty fames, hard won, 
To those whose work is but b< gun ; 
And fed the young heart with the praise 
Of deathless deeds of deathless days. 

With fair romance he gilded truth, 
And fed the hungering heart of youth, 
And his strong words new years will see 
Bloom in strong actions yet to be. 

The exercises closed with the benediction by Dr. Capen, and 
the organ postlude, "Marche Funebre." 



The origin of the Tufts family is uncertain. It is n 
likely that they are of Norwegian descent, and went to Engl 
in the time of ..the Vti ings. {'ranches are found in Enj 
Scotland, and Ireland. J he earliest settler of the name in Am 
ica, and the progenitor of by far the largest branch of the fan 
in this country, came from England. Precisely what pan 
England he came from is not known ; but there are indicate 
pointing to the southern part of Norfolk county as his 

When he came is likewise unknown. Wyman says th« 
was an inhabitant in 1038. lie kept the Ferry betwe I 
town and Maiden with ids brother-in-law, Bridges, in l 
but we have not been able to find any mention of him | 
that date. We do know, however, that he began to buy la- 
Charlestown and Maiden between the years 1645 ami '50, 
that he continued to increase his holdings at short intervals 
his death in 1700, at which time he was the largest landhold< 
Maiden. He appears not to have owned much, ii an 
within the present hunts of Somerville. He lived at one 
near the Everett spring in Everett, but latterly on trn 
United States Ordnance property, near the Maiden river . 
canal. Here he died, and near-by he lies buried. 

Peter Tufts married the daughter of Thomas Pie. 
Charlestown, and had a large family of children. His torn 
were Captain Peter, of Medfdrd and Maiden: James, who 
killed in early life with Lothrop in the ambuscade 
Brook in 1675; Jonathan, of Medford ; and John, of Charh 


and Maiden. The youngest son, John, was the only one identi- 
fied with Sornerville. It does no-i appear that John, himself, 
lived within our limits, but lie bought large tracts of land here 
on which he established his sons, Nathaniel and Peter. These 
sons lived and died on these farms, and from them are descended 
nearly all of the Tuftses who have ever lived in Sornerville. 

In 1699 John Tufts began buying land within the present 
limits of Sornerville, and at his death, in 1 728, he left to his son 
Nathaniel, forty-four acre:-, mostly on the south side of Union 
square; and to Peter an equally large tract, principally on the 
southwesterly side of Sonuvville avenue, near Dane street. 

Nathaniel Tufts was born in Mediord in 1692. His mother 
was Mary, the daughter of Nathaniel Putnam, of Salem Village. 
He was a man, as the record run's, "much employed in public 
business," and was a lieutenant in the militia, from which mili- 
tary service the many hundreds of descendants of John and Mary 
(Putnam) Tufts become eligible to Colonial societies. 

Nathaniel Tufts married, first, Mary Sprague, of Maiden, 
who died within a year; second, Mary, the daughter of William 
Rand, of Charlestown, in L716, who died in 1764. He died in 
1741. She, and probably he, lie in the old cemetery in Harvard 
square, — this part of Sornerville then belonging to the Cambridge 
parish. The children of Nathaniel who lived to grow up were: 
Nathaniel, William, Mary, John, Pers-is, and Isaiah. 

We do not know when Nathaniel moved to his father's farm 
on the south side of Union square, but it was probably about the 
time of his marriage. No traditions of Nathaniel have been 
handed down, nor has any one that we have < . er talked with, 
known aught of the house he lived in. But it must have .stood 
in Washington street, near its junction with Webster avenue. 
It is probable that it was on the very site of St. Joseph's church, 
as the remains of an old cellar existed there some sixty years 

There were about nine acres in the homestt ad lot, and eight - 
teen acres of "birch swamp," so-called, in the rear. The easterly 
limits were in the neighborhood of Prospect sheet ; southerly, it 


extended to the Cambridge line. Part of this birch pasture re- 
mained uncultivated and unbuilt-on till recent years; and fur- 
nished a skating ground for the children south of Prospect hill. 

The homestead fell to the son William, who died in 1773, 
leaving one child, John Tufts, 2nd. In William's inventory there 
is no mention of the house, and it is presumed that it was not in 
existence at the time of the Revolution. A barrack for the sol- 
diers was erected on the homestead lot during the siege of Bos- 
ton by Colonel Patterson, and Fort No. 3 took its beginning near 
the same point. 

John Tufts, the third son of Nathaniel, became a merchant 
on a Kennebec river plantation, and died early. Pie left a widow, 
but no children. He devised his real estate principally to his 
brother William. 

Isaiah was a soldier in the French and Indian war. He 
married Abigail Pierce, the sister of the wives of his brothers 
Nathaniel and William. He died at the age of thirty-three, 
leaving two children, Nathaniel and Abigail. .The former of 
these is believed to have died in early life; the latter was never 

John, 2nd, the son of William, never married. He died 
about the year 1829, aged about sixty-one. These three sons of 
Nathaniel, therefore, left no descendants after the first genera- 
tion. Nor, indeed, have there been any descendants of Nathaniel 
bearing the Tufts name, in Somerville, for seventy years. The 
two daughters, Mary, who was married to John Morse, and Per- 
sis, who was married to Christopher Ranks, are not known to 
have continued to live in Somerville. 

The eldest son of Nathaniel, however, Nathaniel, Jr., had 
two daughters, from the elder of whom there have been numer- 
ous descendants of prominence in the town. Three of the sons 
of Nathaniel, Sr., married daughters of a neighbor, James Pierce, 
who seems to have lived at the base of Wildredge's, or Prospect 
Hill, on the westerly corner of Stone avenue and Union square, 
perhaps in the same old house removed from that site some 

nty-five years ago. Nathaniel married Mary Pierce in 1753. 

\y had two daughters, Mary, who was married to John Stone 

1780, and Elizabeth, who was married to Ebenezer Smith. 

! latter had no children, but from Colonel and Airs. Stone 

descended the old families of Stone, Vinal, Sanborn, and 

oner now in town. Nathaniel inherited from his father the 

reat Pasture," so-called, containing fifty-fh e aci s. This pas- 

e was bounded by the present Walnut street, Highland ave- 

L School street, Somerville avenue, and Dow street. There 

6 no house on it at the time of the father's death, and, indeed, 

Dore only one house for more than a hundred years, or till a 

i years after the setting off of the new tov n. This house was 

i residence of Nathaniel Tufts, Jr. It will be remembered as 

e old house taken down a few years ago, which stood close to 

t eastern wall of the First Methodist Episcopal church on Bow 

*eet. Nathaniel continued to live in it till 1767, when, like his 

;her, he died at about the age of fifty. 

The descendants of Peter Tufts are more numerous than 
ose of his brother Nathaniel.* They have numbered many 
mdreds, and have largely lived in Eastern Massachusetts, 
eter inherited from his father, with the farm above referred to, 
le dwelling bought of Russell in 1701. It is the house familiar 
» the members of this society as the one on Somerville avenue, 
hich General Greene occupied as his headquarters during the 
ege of Boston. It continued in possession of the family for 
lore than one hundred and sixty years, having been long owned 
nd occupied by the late Samuel Tufts Frost. It has been 
hanged and added to from time to time, but still retains the ap- 
pearance of a very old house; in fact, it is by several years the 
ildest structure in the city. Mr. Frost had in his possession 
ome of the ancient window .ashes with their haded diamond 
panes. There was long left in one of the great beams of the 
titchen an iron staple said to have been used to hang the steel- 
yards on in weighing the ratio is for the soldier: . 


'i']i !■: 







T W N 1' U B L I G F b? I C E R S. 




18 5 1. 



■ding to the Census taken in 1850, by the authority of the Government of 
the United States. 



















Sherbm i 












South Reading 




























Walt ham, 

4,4 64 







Wa\ land, 




West Cambridge, 






r opkinton, 










Wmchest( r, 














Census of 184 0, 




Inc. in In yeai s, 

54,1 M 





FOR 1851-52- 

Selectmen, John S. Edgerly (chairman), Thomas J. J 
Charles Miller, Chester Guild, John Runey. 

Treasurer, Robert Vinal. 

School Committee, Augustus R. Pope (chairman), J 
Leigh (secretary), Charles Forster, Fitch Cutter, Geo 
Brastow, Edwin Munroe, Jr., Isaac F. Shepard. 

Town clerk, Charles E. Gilman. 

Assessors, John G. Magoun (chairman), William B 
Abel Fitz. 

Overseers of Poor, Columbus Tyler (chairman), 
Tufts, John S. Edgerly. 

Constables, Hugh Moore, William Higgins. 

Collector, Hugh Moore. 

Auditors, Columbus Tyler, Edward L. Stevens, Samu 1" 

Fence Viewers, Hugh Moore, William A. Tufts h:i. 

Field Drivers, Hugh Moore, Theodore Palmer, \Y. 
Lei and. 

Sealer of Leather, Charles Miller. 

Tythingman, Samuel C. Bradshaw, Jr. 

Sealer of Weights and Measures, Leonard Arnold. 

Surveyors of Wood and Bark, John C. Tenney, D. A. 
rett, Gilman Griffin, George A. Sanborn. 

Surveyor of Highways, Abram Welch. 


Henry Adams, Alfred Allen, George O. Brastow, Lutl 
Bell, Ebenezer F. Cutter, John K. Hall, Jonas 11. Kendall, J 
C. Magoun, Samuel Poor, Edward L. Stevens, Columb 
Edmund Tufts. 




Broadway leads from Charlestown to West Cambridge, through 

the northern part of Somerville. 
Elm, from Broadway to Milk. 
Medford, from East Cambridge to Medford. 
Adams, from Broadway to Medford. 
Central, from Broadway to Milk. . 
Sycamore, from Broadway to Medford. 
Derby, from Broadway to Medford Turnpike. 
Walnut, from Broadway to Bow. 
Cross, from Broadway to Medford. 
Rush, from Broadway to Pearl. 
Glen, from Broadway to Flint. 
Franklin, from Broadway to Cambrid 
Mount Vernon, from Broadway to Perkins. 
Mount Pleasant, from Broadway to Perkins. 
Pearl, from Cross. 
Medford Turnpike leads from Charlestown to Medford, through 

the eastern part of Somerville. 
Park, from Bond to Broadway. 
Bond, from Park to Derby- 
Heath, from Park to Derby. 
Perkins, from Franklin to Charlestown. 
Cambridge Street leads from Charlestown to Cambridge, through. 

the southern part of Somerville. 
Tufts, from Cambridge to Cross. 
Joy, from Cambridge to Poplar. 
Linden, No. 3, from Cambridge to Milk. 
Boston, from Cambridge to Walnut over Prospect Hill. 
Linden, from Milk to Wamut. 
Prospect, from Cambridge to Cambridgepo t. 
Dane, from Cambridge to Milk. 
Vine, from Cambridge to Milk. 
Snow Hill, from Beacon to Milk 

Beacon Street leads to Cambridgeport, through the w< 

of Somerville. 
Church, from Medford to Central. 
Milk,, from East Cambridge to Cambridge, near Porter's, thr 

the south part of Somerville. 
Bow, from Milk to Mirk. 
Laurel, from Milk to Summer: 
Oak, from Milk to Beech. 
Spring, from Milk to Summer. 
Belmont, from Milk to Summer. 
Porter, from Elm. 
Linden, No. 2, from Elm. 

Russell, from Elm to North Avenue, Cambridge. 
Orchard, from Russell. 
Cottage place, from Russell. 
Hamlet, from Church. 
Summer, from Central. 
Beech, from Oak to Spring. 
Harvard, from Beech to Summer. 
Elm court, from Harvard. 
Harvard court, from Harvard. 
Myrtle, from Perkins to Cambridge. 
Florence, from Perkins to Pearl. 


Abbreviations— b. stand:; for "business in Boston," h. for "house, 
"near," cor. for "corner of," op. foi 'opposite." The word street v-iL 
omitted as superfluous. 

Aborn, John, b. hatter, h. Cottage, out of Elm. 
Adams, Joseph, Broadway, foot of Winter Hill. 
Adams, Miss H. A. b. teacher, boards with J. Adams. 
Adams, Samuel, boards with J. C. Magoun, at W. II. 
Adams, Charles, b. P. 11. market, h. Central. 

. 30 

Adams, Henry, h. Bow. 

Adams, Solomon, schoolmaster, h. Dane. 

Agen, Patrick, laborer, h. Prospect. 

Allen, Hiram, twine manufacturer, h. Cambridge. 
; Allen, Samuel R., clothing, h. Milk. 
; Allen, Alfred, h. corner of Central and Summer. 

Allen, Henry W., accountant, h. Summer. 
: Allison, William, ship master, h. Beacon. 

Andrews, Samuel G., printer, h. Summer. 

Arnold, Leonard, sash and blind maker, h. Cambridge. 
, A twill, John B., grocer, h. Elm. 

Ball, Ebenezer W., b. merchant, h. Elm. 

Bartlett, Thomas, nail manufacturer, h. Cambridge. 

Bacon, Clark, b. gold beater, h. Broadway. 

Bartlett, Dr. Joseph E., h. corner of Broadway and Mt. Vernon. 

Bailey, Joshua S., baker, h. corner of Perkins and Mt. Pleasant. 

Bancroft, George, b, attorney, h. Summer. 

Bailey, Albert, b. reporter, Transcript, h. Church. 
: Barber, Relief R., female supervisor, McLean Asylum. 
: Beddoe, Thomas, painter, h. Walnut. 

Benton, George A., plane manufacturer, h. Joy. 
! Bennett, Clark, brickmaker, h. Prospect. 
[ Beck, G. W., teacher Catholic school, Prospect Hill. 
; Bell, Dr. Luther V., McLean Asylum. 

Benson, Henry H., McLean Asylum. 

Benson, Amori, Jr., McLean Asylum. 

Beers, Charles R., b. car maker, h. Myrtle 

Bixby, Elbridge S., b. custom house inspector, h. Cambridge. 

Bishop, Henry IL, b. gunsmith, h. Beacon. 

Binney, Moses, cushion manufacturer, h. Medford. 

Blair, Nathan H., brickmaker, h. Prosp< 

Blaisdell, Sally, h. Cambridge. 

Bolton, John F., b. silver engrave)- h. (lunch. 

Bonner, William, h. depot, near bleach ery. 

[Continu | 



In 1836 my grandfather, Jonathan Teele, built the M 
house at the corner of Broadway and Curtis street. The h< i 
standing now. The place was called Charlestown, and Curti 

Dr. Ballou 

Samuel Teele 

I l 

Gr. W. IToldejn S. F. Tki i.e 
1863 186!) 

t 4 t ♦ 

5Q . 00 A. 


♦ s 


Samuel Teele 


L. W. Do\» 

street was a rangeway called "the lane" by the people, and had 
bars at the entrance. The rangeway was only used for getting u 
the farming land beyond. The hill on the Medford si is too 


steep to drive down. No house was upon it, and the land was 
nearly all in the Teele name. I don't Knur,, in what year the 
rangeway was made into a road and called Curtis street. The 
first house was built in 1852, by Mr. L. W. Dow, and it is still 
his. residence. In 1859 my father, Samuel Teele, built a house 
far up on Curtis street, just where Professors' row now enters it. 
The college by this time had been founded, and the main brick 
building and four professor-' houses had been built. Old Dr. 
Ballon, the first president of the college, was our nearest neigh- 
bor, his house being just across the field from us. No other 
house was built till 1863, when Mr. Simon 1 [olden built the house 
now occupied by his son, George W. Holden, the land on which 
it was built being a part of the Teele estate. In 1867 my father 
sold the house he had built and part of hi- land to the college, 
and in 1868 built the house now standing opposite the reservoir. 
In a year or two the college moved the house it had purchased of 
; my father on to Professors' row, which had by that time been 
' made, and it has always been occupied by the late Dr. Sawyer's 

In 1869 a Mr. Merrill built a house on Curtis street, now 
owned and occupied by S. F. Teele. Mr. Merrill lived in it until 
he died. About the same time Warren L. Peele built his house, 
which he still occupies. 'These comprise the old residents of 
Curtis street, and the street remained unchanged lor some years, 
until L. W. Dow began to sell his land for building purposes. 
For many years the old residents were bound together by two 
ties at least. They were all of the same occupation, farmers, 
and their children all attended the same district school. They 
knew each other well, for the neighborhood parties in the winter, 
and the days spent together at Chelsea beach in the summer, 
made us as one large family. 1 his included the neighbors on 
Broadway, too. One characteristic of them all was their love of 
home; for all have remained as residents ■ the stre< t. and only 
death removes them. 


Martin Binney, sometimes called Harry or flenry M. 
Binney, was born in East Cambridge, Mass., February \'l, 
After receiving his education in the Cambridge schools, at Lh< 
age of twenty-two years he was married to Miss Sallie D. . 
at Providence, R. I. She was the daughter of John and 
Avers, of Boston, and formerly lived at East Cambridge. Thi 
marriage was on February 24, 1853. Subsequently Cap! air 
ney and family came to Somerville. They had two sons wl, 
reached manhood, Edward A. and Henry M. Binney. Captain 
Binney, the subject of this narrative, lived in the old town i 
Somerville when it was a village and part of Charlesiown. 
himself gives the following account of his services in the war 

I was a member of the Massachusetts State Militia in 1 
at the age of nineteen, serving first in the old Boston Light [j 
fantry, or "Tigers,"' for three years, and subsequently in tl 
''Boston Independent Fusileers," in the Fifth Massachusetts 1 
fantry. On April 15, 1861, at the first call for troops, I joine I 
Company I, Fifth Massachusetts Volunteers. This was the o 
"Somerville Light Infantry," Captain George O. Brastow. 
was quartered in the Treasury building for some time, 
mustered into the United States service at Washington, D. ( 
May 1, 1861. Subsequently it crossed Long Bridge into \ ii 
ginia, and was camped at "Shooters Hill," Virginia, until July r, . 
1861, on which day we marched to Centreville Heights, neai 
Manassas Junction. V ith thirty other men 1 was detailed und< r 
Captain Messer of the Haverhill company to march up a 
road. Here we met a body of rebels on July 18, at a place . 
"Wolf Run Shoals," and had quite an engagement. We 
overtook the army two days later, encamped on Cent 


Heights, and on the 21st of July (Sunday), went into the battle 
of Bull Run or Manassas. From there the regiment re- 
turned to Washington, and our time of enlistment having ex- 

• pired August 1, 18G1, we were mustered out and returned to 

i Boston. 

In the following September, 1861, Captain George W. West, 
who was formerly first lieutenant in the Somerville Light In- 
fantry, but who did not go out with the company on three 
months' service, asked Captain Brastow to name two men of his 
old company who would make suitable officers in his new com- 
pany in Maine. Captain Brastow gave him the names of Martin 
Biuney and Edward Brackett. Captain West offered me a com- 
mission as second lieutenant, and Brackett that of first sergeant, 
stating that he himself expected to be commissioned major in 
another Maine regiment, which would leave us both a chance of 
promotion. We accepted and went to Maine and helped recruit 
the company. We received our commissions and were attached 
to the Tenth Maine regiment, which was in camp at Cape Eliza- 
beth, near Portland, Me. My commission from Governor 
Washburn of Maine as second lieutenant, Tenth Maine Vol- 
unteers, was dated September 23, 18(51, and as first lieutenant, 
June, 1862. This regiment went about November 5, 1861, to 
Patterson Park, Baltimore, Aid., and remained there some 
months. It was classed in the "Middle Department," Major- 
General John E. Wool, U. S. A., commanding, and was soon 
ordered to "Relay House," nine miles out on the Baltimore & 
Ohio railroad, and belonged to the so-called "Railroad Brigade." 
While we remained at the Relay House, the "Railroad 
Brigade," consisting of the Tenth Maine, a Wisconsin, and 
a Connecticut regiment, was under Colonel Dixon S. Miles, 
of the Second U. S. Infantry. About February, 1862 
was appointed as acting assistant adjutant-general, and r< 
mained upon his staff until the surrender of Harper's Ferry, Sep 
tcniher 15, 18G2. In June, 1862, the eneni ttack up< n 

Harper's Ferry from Halltown and Lond< n [h ights, and v, 

7 °0Z26 


back over a pontoon bridge to Maryland Heights, which com 

manded the country for miles, and from which the steeples of 
Martinsburg could be seen. Upon the plateau of Maryland 
Heights we had the naval battery of two 50-pound Armstrong 
rifled guns and a 100-pound Columbia, worked at first by sailors, 
and' subsequently by the Fifth New York Artillery. The rebels 
again attacked us in force, but the shells from Maryland Heights 
broke them up. Prior to this 1. had been badly" injured by fall- 
ing through a stone culvert. This occurred late at. night, when 
a party of our regiment was out in search of a rebel officer, who 
we heard was visiting friends seven miles distant. The injury 
received was a bad cut in the eye-brow. Mrs. George West, wife 
of Captain West, dressed the wound. She with several officers' 
wives was with the regiment at Relay House and Harper's Kt 

Again, late in June, I8G2, while superintending the plac 
of Gardner's Indiana Battery on the crest of Bolivar Heights, 
a six-pound solid shot from the enemy at Halltown struct 
the wheel of one of the guns, and glancing, entered the flank 
of my horse, carrying a part of my coat tails with it. The 
horse, in falling, carried me under him, dislocating m\ knee 
This laid me tip for some time. 

While the Tenth Maine was quartered at Harper's Ferry, 
Captain West's company (D) was provost guard, and Captain 
West was provost-marshal of Harper's Ferry and vicinity. The 
enemy was obliged to retire up the valley. 

As my wife was very ill at home, and my eye badly injured, 
I was granted twenty days 1 leave of absence. Before my leave 
had expired, I learned that the Confederates had again laid siege 
to Harper's Ferry to cover their raid into Maryland, and I at 
once returned to the front and reported for duty. 

I took part in many skirmishes in and about Halltown, 
Charleston, Sharpsburg, ami on Bolivar Heights, and was 
favorably mentioned in the report of General Ruhls Saxton. The 
Tenth Maine regiment, with Captain West, First Lieutenant 
John D. Beardsley, and Sergeant Ed Brackett, went up the vallev 


with the rest, and joined Sheridan's army. I was still upon 
Colonel Miles' staff at the Ferry. While at Winchester Captain 
West received his commission as major in the Seventeenth Maine 
Volunteers, John D. Beardsley was made captain, Martin Binney, 
first lieutenant, and Ned Bracket!, second lieutenant. This regi- 
ment was in the fight at Cedar Mountain, where Captain Beards- 
ley was taken prisoner. This left the company under Second 
Lieutenant Edward Brackett, of Somerville, and they went up 
through Luray valley and joined General Tope's army at or near 
Manassas Junction, Va. 

In August, 1862, the enemy again laid siege to Harper's 
Ferry. They crossed the Potomac river at "Point of Rocks" 
and Edward's Ferry, which was between Harper's Ferry and 
Baltimore, and before cutting the telegraph wires, received our 
despatches to and from Washington. They attacked the position 
at the Ferry in front of Bolivar Heights, occupied London 
Heights on the Virginia side at the j miction of the Shenandoah 
river, and those who had crossed into Maryland came up through 
Crampton's Gap and South Moum am, and swarmed up the rear 
of Maryland Heights. We had six days' constant battle, in fact, 
an artillery duel, as there was no opportunity to use infantry 
or cavalry. During the night of September 13, 1862, the cavalry 
captured the whole of General Longstreet's ammunition train. 
Thus Harper's Ferry became a slaughter pen, and on the morn- 
ing of September 15, 1802, after a consultation with all the field 
officers, the commander, Colonel Dixon S. Miles, surrendered 
with the terms: "All officers shall retain their side arms anil pri- 
vate property, the troops to retain their personal propert) . and 
all officers and men to be paroled." Twelve thousand men thus 
became parole prisoners, and remained so until January 1, 
when they were officially exchanged. 

Being a patroled prisoner of war, I remained at 
home until notice was received that all the prisoners oi 
Harper's Ferry were exchanged. 1 was ordered to report to: 
duty to the nearest department in which 1 might be. 1 at 

reported to Major-General John E. Wool, Mew York city, com- 
manding the Department of the East, which comprised all the 
New England states with Now York and New Jersey. I re- 
ported on January 1, 1863. To my surprise and gratification L 
received immediately an appointment as personal aide-de-camp 
upon the: staff of Major General Wool, and remained there until 
the expiration of the service of the Tenth Maine Volunteers, 
when I was mustered out and came home in June, 1863. 

Although offered many positions in the service between 
June, 1863, and January, 1864, I fell that I had "had enough of 
it," and remained at home. But the old spirit was upon mi 
I again enlisted as a private soldier in the Twenty-eighth i\ 
chusetts Volunteers in the early spring of 1864, and was commis- 
sioned first lieutenant March 18, 1864. 

We started for the [runt, about March 23, 1864, and found 
the Twenty-eighth Massachusetts at Stevensburg (Main;, \ a 
Here I was mustered into the United States service and assigned 
to Company B, Captain Charles II. Smith, of Worcester. For 
some extra service while out on picket line seven miles to the 
front, I was highly complimented by General Thomas A. Smythe 
of the Second Brigade, hirst 1 >ivision, (General F. C. Barlow) 
Second Corps (Major-General W. S. Hancock), and I was ordered 
to go back to camp and report to General Smythe in j 
which I did, and received an appointment upon the brigade 
This was only ten or fifteen days after reaching the army. I .. 
May 3, 1864, we started to cross the Rappahannock rive; 
then commenced the campaign of thai ) ear. We were constant.) 
engaged in and about "the Wilderness" May 3, I, 5, and «'.. I »n 
May 4, I was struck in the head by a bullet which tore the 
and rendered me unconscious. I was taken to the rear to tin- 
field hospital, where the surgeon shaved my head and to< 
stitches in the wound. Alter dirk f could not feel contented ami 
sneaked out of the hospital t< nt, walked three miles, and reported 
for duty at brigade-headqu; ' in ban 

We continued our famous left flank movements, and had en*racre- 


merits at Po river, Ptollopottumy creek, North Anna, South 
Anna, and the great fights of Spottsylvania, May 18th, the ''Day- 
light Assault" of May 12th, also the "Bloody Angle." On May 
12th, after our daylight assault, we captured the formidable 
earthworks, 3,000 prisoners, twenty-two pieces of artillery, and 
two major-generals, (Stuart and I Lee). While on top of the 
bastion, I seized the gun of a dead soldier and some ammunition 
and commenced to load and fire upon the Confederates.- I hud 
fired thus three times when a piece of exploded shell struck me 
exactly upon my belt-plate, doubled up the plate and completely 
knocked the breath out of me. I fell forward into the earth- 
works, where I remained until two P. M. J had lain there from 
about nine A. M. I was finally carried back to the field hospital, 
and after remaining three days 1 again reported to the front for 
duty. About this time Colonel Richard Byrnes of the Twenty- 
eighth Massachusetts returned from the recruiting service, and 
took command of the brigade, and as my regiment had lost many 
officers, I was ordered to my regiment, then commanded by 
Colonel George W. Cartwright. On May 18th, at Spottsylvania, 
the brigade had captured a line i earthworks and held it some 
time, subjected to an enfilading fire of grape and cannister and 
shell. A consulting of officers was held at the base of a large 
tree. While congregated there, a rebel shell exploded in oui 
midst, killing outright Captain Magrier, Major Lawler, and Cap- 
tains Cockran and Mclntyre, and severely wounding Majoi 
Fleming, Captain Page, Captain Annand, and Lieutenant Bird. 
Thus were terribly decimated the officers in the Twenty-eighth 
Massachusetts regiment. 

June 3rd and 1th was fought the battle of Cold Harbor, 
Va., and this regiment on the night of June 1th could muster only 
two officers, Captain Noyes ami myself, and less than 10" men. 
When the Twenty-eighth went into the Wilderness. May 3rd and 
4th, we had 385 men and twenty-s< an officers. In just thirty 
days it was reduced to two officers and less than 100 men. 

' On June 4th, 18<>l,at the battle of Cold Harbor, Firs: 


Lieutenant Edward F. O'Brien, our adjutant, was severely 
wounded and lost his foot, and i was made adjutant of the 
Twenty-eighth regiment, and Major James Fleming was made 
lieutenant-colonel commanding. In coming out of our assault 
on June 4th, and retiring through a storm of shot, shell, and can- 
nister, Colonel Richard Byrnes of the Twenty-eighth, and 
manding the Second Brigade, was mortally wounded in the spine 
and completely paralyze!. As he was left on the field, after 
reaching our trenches 1 called for volunteers, and. with sixteen 
men made a sortie over our trenches into a perfect hell of lire. 
We rescued the colonel, but left eleven of our men to pay the 
penalty. Colonel Brynes was taken to Washington, and sur- 
vived a few days only, but long enough for his family to reach 
him before he died. For this act I was highly complimented b\ 
Major-General Frank C. Barlow, commanding the first division 
of Hancock's Second Army Corps. 

From Cold H arbor we continued our march and crossed the 
James river. Then commenced the siege of Petersburg. Late in 
June, the 29th, I think, Hancock's Corps marched to City Point, 
Va., took transports, and landed at "Deep Bottom," thus draw- 
ing the enemy away from Petersburg. On the transport on the 
way up the river, I was in the vessel's hold, sleeping upon some 
cannon-balls and old rubbish, when 1 was called and informed 
that Major-General Barlow wished me to report to him in the 
pilot house. I learned that he wished me to accept an ap- 
pointment upon his staff, and act as personal aide-de-camp. 1 
accepted, and led the division, after landing, up to Strawberry 
Plain, where we were in sight of the steeples of Richmond. 

For fifteen years after the war 1 was an active member of 
Company A (Lancers), First Battalion, Cavalry, _\1. V. M. 

I am now sixty-nine years old and retired from active service. 

Martin Binney, 
Late Captain Twenty-eighth Mas- \ 

Somerville, Mass., November 1, 1899. 


Edward Glirvcs 


Wellington- Wild Coal Co. 

00 COAL oo 

For Domnesiic and Steam Uses 

General Office : 7 Central Street BOSTON 

Craigie's Bridge, E. Cambridge Union Sq., Somerville 

149 Medford St., Charlestown Gilman Sq., Somerville 

34 Warren Ave., Charlestown 226 Main St., Charlestown 

511 Main St., Charlestown 


Manufacturers ar\d Retailers of 

HATS and TUR5 

tor ni.n and women 

92 Bedford, cor. Kingston St. 

and 229 Washington St. 


Manufacturing and. Supply Co. 

Cassius Hunt &, Co. 

Wholesale and Commission Dealers iii 

Ocean, Lake, River, cine! Pond 

120 and 122 South Market Street, Boston 






Photographic Supplies 

We carry one of the largest and most complete lines in 
Boston, including SSa n>s KLodaks, Preiiio, 

Poro, Century Cameras* Films, Plates, Printing 
Paper, Developers, and Toning Solutions, in fact, everything 
required b}' the amateur in -photography. 

Special department for Developing and Printing. 


Cutlery, Fishing Tackle, 
and Photographic Goods 

374 Washington St., topp. Bromfield St,) BOSTON 

We Guarantee to Sell ) Facts About 

Fine \ Wall Papers 

Wall I cipClb . ^ All Papers shown you in Sample Books 

'JDi f-i&v C^e>f"\¥ ) are la;ir ^ £d t0 se " ^ or double the regular 
ZAJ JpCl \JvD If S price. Most of the leading mar.ufactur- 
Y ( ers refuse to sell to any firm which sends 

LOWCl* \ ou * sample books, Books with th< 

( patterns as those shown you are in the 
t ( hands of several persons in every tov n 

Than any Other Concern ) In your county. Call and see cur Im- 
< . r^ ) mense stock of new and exclus 

in this Country \ terns for season of 1902. 


\2 Cornhill, Boston 

Telephone Connection Next door to Washington I 

5\xwps<m v &&e &> Co . . . 

-» msuKnncE ®- 

Mercantile Fire and Marine Ins, Co., of Boston 
American Central Ins. Co., of St. Louis, Mo. 
Hamburg-Bremen Ins. Co., of Germany 

Prussian National Ins. Co., of Germany 
Albany Ins. Co., of Albany, N. Y. 



Telephone 2179 

47 Ikilb? Street, * * Boston, flDass. 



121 Water Street, 'Boston, cMass. 


Plants and Flowers for all Occasions Grower to Consumer 

330 Broadway, Somerville, Mass. 

Branch — 283 Main Street, Charlesto ,vn. 510 High Street, West Medford 
Rose and Carnation Farm — Woburn 3 Telephones 


8 City Hall Avenue, Boston 

Roses, Carnations, and a large assortment of season- 
able flowers always on hand* 

Decorating, and all kinds of Design work, at short 
notice. Prices reasonable 

Telephone No. 3779-4 Main 


js? CATERER & 

3 Waverley House, City Sq., Charlestown. 

«* Ice Cream <* j 

Of the very Finest Quality cut and put up in 
Boxes, a specialty for Fairs and Churches at 
special rates. 

Prices sent promptly on application. 

Telephone 209, Charlestown. 

Officers of SomerviSie Historical Society. 



First Vice-President, 

Second Vice-President, . 

Third Vice-President, 

Recording Secretary, 

Corresponding Secretary, 


Librarian and Curator, . 

Charles D. Elliot, 

J. O. Hayden, Chairman, 

L. B. Pillsbury, Chairman, 
John F. Ayer, 
Charles D. Elliot, 


L. Roger Wentworth, 

fiistovic Sites. 

Dr. E. C. Booth. 

essays and JBddmses. 
Obrary and gabinet. 

Alfred M. Cutler, Chairman, 
Levi L. Hawes, 


B. B. D. Bourne, Chairman, 

(With one other to be chosen by the con: 

Press ana glippinss, 

Anna P. Vinal, Chairman, 
M. Agnes Hunt, 

Marion Knapp. 


Mrs. Barbara Galpin, Chairman, 
Sam Walter Foss, 
Frank M. Hawes, 


Seth Mason, Chairman, 
Mrs. L. B. Pillsbury, 

Mrs. H. E, Heald. 

military Kccords. 

Col. E. C. Bennett, Chairman, 

Levi L. Hawes. 


The President, The First Vice-Presid nl 

John F. Ayer. 
Luther B. Pillsbury. 
Levi L. Hawes. 
Seth Mason. 
Florence E. Carr. 
Mrs. V. E. Ayer. 
Oliver Bacon. 
Alfred M. Cutler. 

Anna P. Vinal. 
Charles D. Elliot, 

Anna P. Vinal, 
Lizzie F. Wait, 
Mrs. V. E. Ayer. 

L. P. Sanborn, 
Mrs. H. E. Heald. 

Chas. W. Colrnan. 
mittee. ) 

Mary A. Haley, 
Lucy M. Stone, 

Sara A. Stone, 
Nelson H. Grover, 
Charles I. Shepard. 

Mrs. E. S. Hayes, 
Miss E. A. Waters. 

John H. Pus 

The Treasurer. 





The good roads anovement lias acquired too much momen- 
tum in these first days of the twentieth century, is too well appre- 
ciated by all sorts and conditions of travelers, for us, here and 
now, to criticise either the cost of construction or the great and 
lasting benefits accruing from the gradual introduction of these 
scientifically constructed, — the so-called sand-papered roads. 

The state, the county, the city, and the town seemingly vie 
with each other in their efforts to improve the highways, and so 
facilitate the transportation of merchandise from point to point. 

Not so in the early years of the past century; "any old thing" 
of a road was thought good enough for the farmers, although at 
that time the hauling was all practically done by this e! 

You know about the time of the chartering of the Boston & 
Lowell railroad, the officials of the old Middlesex Canal 
upon record as staling, that no railroad, no corporation c 
compete with the fanner in this teaming business, because tin. 
farmer, having the necessary paraphernalia which he used in his 
business as an agriculturist upon his farm and in moving his 
crops and supplies, could team goods over the roads cheaper than 
anyone else, and it was useless to think he couldn't. The farmers 
did starve out the old canal company ; it would seem by the above 
statement that its officials were willing to acknowledge them- 
selves beaten by the yeomen from the, back towns. There were 
some individuals, however, away hack in the beginning i 
century, some progressive men, who began to agitate for better 
roads. There were few settlers in the villages, the country was 
sparsely settled, the towns small and poor; the appropriations for 
roads, little in amount, had io be spread out very thin; i 

quently, the highways were rough, stony, sandy, full of steep 
grades, slough-holes, slumps. No wonder the live men of the 
period should desire better roads, highways of easier grades, bet- 
ter constructed, free from boulders and stumps, and slough- holes 
and ruts. 

This desire, perhaps, was the first dawning, the first dream of 
what the past century might accomplish in the way of easier .com- 
munication, a more rapid transit, a more economical handling of 
the products of the farm, the forest, the mill. 

Let us take a look at the country about this time. 

The one outlet from Boston on the north was by way of the 
new Charlestown bridge. This bridge, built in 1786, was the 
marvel of the times, a sort of a seven days' wonder to the people 
of that time. It was longer than the celebrated London bridge 
over the Thames, and as a triumph of engineering skill was no 1 , 
surpassed by any other in existence. It was planned and built by 
Lemuel Cox, of Medford, a shipwright. I his same man, in L767, 
built Maiden bridge, and later, the old Ksscx bridge at Salem. 
On the completion of the structure a great celebration occurred 
in Charlestown, "a vast feast was given" ; this took place on the 
17th of June, and was a grand gala occasion. Poetry and song 
entered into the programme. 1 [ere is a specimen of the verses: — 

I sing the day in which the bridge 

Is finish-ed and done. 
Boston and Charlestown lads, rejoice! 

And tire your cannon guns! 

The bridge is finished now, I sa 

Each other bridge outvies, 
For London bridge, compared with ours, 

Appears in dim disguise. 

Now Boston, Charlestown, nobly join, 

And roast a fatted ox. 
On noted Bunker Mill combine 
To toast our patriot, G 

At the Neck, Milk Row road turned off towards Cambri 

-'Connecting- with the new West Boston bridge, built in 1703 ; i 
was the first road built out from Charlestown. 

Two of the original logs used in the construction of the 
corduroy road over Charlestown Neck may now be seen at tin 
Historical Society's headquarters. Then the Winter Hill 
through to the "Ford of the Mistick," was built, a country 
steep over the hill, and trying to both team and driver; gradual] 
it had been pushed further back into the wilderness, accommod; 
ing at this time a community of fanners, whose crops and \voo< 
and supplies were slowly and tediously hauled over the route 
and from the growing metropolis of New England, as had b 
the method for a hundred and fifty years or so. 

The sturdy farmer drove his own ox-wagon in those 
times; two or three miles an hour was "good doing/' A trip I 
Boston occupied several days, albeit the distance might 1 
than twenty-five miles. It was the era of horseback-riding, 
saddle-bag and pillion. Ac every store stood many s 
horses. Nearly all vehicles were of the heavy styles kno 
freighters or farm wagons. But little traveling was indulged i 
the well-to-do farmer might have a spring wagon, — 
"shay," — to take his wife about in. Such things were cons 
luxuries, however, which only the few could afford. 

The only public conveyance was the stage-coach, usually 
four-horse vehicle with an egg-shaped body suspended on tin 
oughbraces, which gave the stage a comparatively eas\ r 
motion. These carried the mails, and their arrival and departu < 
were marked incidents in the daily life of every village, whi 
country tavern flourished in those days. As a poet of the til 
puts it: — 

Long ago at the cn(\ of the route, 

The stage pulled up and the folks stepped out. 
They have all passed in by the tavern door, 
The youth and his bride and the gray threes 


Their eyes were weary with dust and gleam, 
The day had gone like an empty dream. 
Soft may they slumber and trouble no more, 
For their eager journey with its jolt is o'er. 

All the carrying being done by ox or horse power, these es- 
tablishments were well filled every night. As a boy I remember 
seeing the crowds of heavy team- which put up at the six or 
eight taverns in Charlestown, the Russell bouse at the Neck and 
the old "Middlesex" at Reed's Corner being particularly remem- 
bered. It was, therefore, in such ;i country with these primitive 
customs in vogue that we find ourselves at the beginning of the 
19th century. 

The argument was to shorten the route to Charlestown 
bridge, which served now as the inlet of the whole northern coun- 
try to Boston — to open a direct, level and thoroughly constructed 
road from Medford to connect with this highway, — to connect 
also with Milk Row road and the new Cambridge bridge. 

As in the case of the Middlesex C; nal, so in the movement 
which resulted in the building of the turnpike, Medford people 
were prominent. Three of the five incorporators of the turnpike 
corporation, Benjamin Hall, John Brooks, and Ebenezer Hall, 
were also among the petitioners for an act to incorporate the 
Canal company ten years previous ( L793). ( >n the ;.nd of March, 
1803, the charter declared that the above-named with Fitch Hall 
and Samuel Buel and all such persons as are or shall be as 
ated with them and their successor* shall be a corporation by the 
name of "The Medford Turnpike Corporation"; and shall by that 
name sue and be sued, and. enjoy all I : privileges and powers 
which are by law incident to corporations, for die purpose of lad- 
ing out and making a turnpike road from the easterly side of the 
road nearly opposite to Dr. Luther Si an!>' house in Medford, 
and running easterly of Winter hill and, "Ploughed Hill" to the 
east side of the road opposite to Page's Pavern, near the Neck in 
Charlestown, and f" eepingthe same in repair. 

Provided, that if the said corporation shall neglect to com- 
plete the said turnpike road for the space of three years after thi 
passing of this act the same shall be void. Provided, however 
that if the said road should be laid out across any grounds, tin 
privileges of which have been heretofore granted to the pro 
prietors of the Middlesex (.'anal for the purpose of cutting a c 
the proprietors of the said Medford Turnpike shall be obliged t 
make any extra bridge or bridges across the canal or extra sluice 
which shall be rendered necessary by the formation of said turn- 
pike road, and to keep the same in repair. The said tun 
road shall be laid out not less than three rods wide on the upland 
nor more than six rods wide on the marsh, and the path to b>. 
traveled shall be not less than twenty-four feet wide in an) ; 
When the said road shall he sufficiently made and approved, then 
the turnpike corporation shall be and is hereby authorized to 
erect a turnpike gate or gates in some convenient place or place* 
on said road for collecting the rolls ; such locations as shall I 
termined by said corporation and approved by the count) 
missioners, and shall he entitled to receive lor each passenger or 
traveler the following rate of toll, to wit: For every coach, cl 
phaeton, or other four-wheeled vehicle for the conveyance of p r- 
sons, drawn by not mure than two horses, ten cents; if more than 
two horses, two cents for each added horse. For every 
wagon, sleigh or sled, or other carriage of burden, drawn b; 
more than three cattle, six cents ; if by more than three, two cents 
for each added horse or ox. \<or every curricle, eight cents 
For every cart drawn by one horse, four cents. For sleigh for tlu' 
conveyance of person^., drawn by two horses, six cents; if by 
more than two horses, two cents lor each additional horse. 
one-horse sleigh or sled, four cents. For every chaise, chair, or 
other two-wheeled carriage, drawn by one horse, six cents. For 
every man and horse, two cents. For all oxen, horses, or cattle. 
led or driven besides those in the carriage, or team, one-hall 
For all sheep or swine, two. cents by the dozen, and in s 
portion for greater or less number. 


Provided, that nothing in this act shall authorize said cor- 
poration to demand toll of any person who .shall be passing with 
his horse or carriage to or from his usual place of public worship, 
or with his horse, team, or cattle, to or from the common labors of 
his farm. When no toll-gatherer shall be present at said gate to 
receive toll, the said gate shall be left open and travelers be per- 
mitted to pass freely. 

A section provides against delay or hindrance at the gate of 
any person; also against taking move than the above rates. 

The corporation was held for damage that might happen to 
any person, also for damage because of bide of repair on the road. 
It should be also liable to presentment by the grand jury for not 
keeping the road in repair. 

The penalty for evading payment of tolls was not over fifty 
dollars nor less than ten dollars, or three times the regular rates 
if the gates were flanked. The General Court could dissolve the 
corporation when the income should have compensated for the 
cost, care, and twelve per cent, dividend/when the property would 
become the state's. Persons were allowed to pay a lump sum in- 
stead of the established rates upon agreement with the corpora- 
tion. The corporation could hold other real estate to the amount 
of six thousand dollars. 

The one hundred shares in the corporation represented the 
cost of the road and buildings ; all the property of every name and 
nature was returned to the state as of the value of four hundred 
and forty thousand dollars. 

The turnpike was expected to facilitate greatly the trans- 
portation of farm and forest products on the one band and the 
store goods and family supplies on the other. This looked well 
on paper, it sounded well as it was talked. It was theoretically 
correct, but who ever knew the average Yankee farmer to adept 
a method of travel which incurred an outlay of money (tolls) 
when, by pulling his cattle or horses the harder, he could save 
the moiety of money demanded for the passing along level ways 
and over a well-made and shorter route, ^ven if by so doing, v. 


and tear and time enough to more than offset the tolls were saved 
many times over? To patronize the turnpike was considered by 
him much in the same light as owning a spring vehicle, a spinet, 
or a carpet for the best room, — well enough if one could afford it, 
but rather beyond the average fanner. 

The turnpike was kept open for upward of sixty years, but it 
was not a success financially. When built, there were almost no 
occupants of the land along the route. Later Colonel Jaques and 
the Cutters at the Medford line were ihe only intermediate 
dwellers on the line. The Ursiiline Convent grounds bordered it, 
but had their outlet on the Winter J 1111 road, and so would have 
no occasion to patronize the turnpike, while the original outlet 
of the Ten Hills farm was by way of Temple street to Winter Hill 
road. To Medford and the back towns, therefore, together with 
such other business as might spring up along the route it must 
depend for patronage; upon a community largely farmers and 
with the peculiar financial ideas of such hard-fisted people. 
reports are on file at the State House showing the earnings of the 
corporation from year to war. But in 18G4 of the one hundred 
shares of stock, Daniel Lawrence, of "Old Medford Rum" fame, 
owned twenty-eight; Dudley Mall, seventeen: J. O. Curtis, thir- 
teen; E. H. Derby, eleven ; John Goodnow, six; William Rogers, 
six. J. O. Curtis as treasurer reported the cash market value of 
the shares three dollars each. In 1865 he reported the sit; 
of no value, with a list of the holders. In 1866 he reported the 
capital stock nothing, with no assets of any kind. 

Four hundred and forty thousand dollars and the earning 
sixty odd years represent in a way the financial loss of this enter- 
prise ; represent, perhaps the foil) of building a road with no 
foundation to build upon. When the turnpike was comple! 
had every appearance of being a solid and substantial structure ; 
in reality, it was built upon no foundation whatever, only U] 
the spongy marshes of the .Mystic. The settling process begai 
at once; the action of hem and cold ami storm ami tin 
friction of travel caused many a seam to open, many a defect to 


become manifest. Repairs were necessary, repairs here, there, 
everywhere, to-day, to-morrow, with no let-up. The more sur- 
facing material put on meant the more weight of the structure, 
and still deeper settling of the roadway. The chip-stone and 
gravel simply dropped through and the marsh mud came to the 
surface. It was clearly a case of pouring m< >ney into a hole. We 
shrink from the contemplation of "16 in I" from a monetary and 
business point of view, but how, think you, did the stockholder* 
regard the drop from four hundred and forty thousand dollars to 
nothing? What a slump that was, to be Mire! 

The turnpike was abandoned this same year, 1866. No tolls 
were collected later than March 1st of that year. On May 2 ( '., 
1866, the legislature passed an act to authorize the county com- 
missioners to lay out and establish the turnpike as a highway pro- 
vided the corporation should file their assent with a waiver for all 
claims for damages, and to apportion the expense thereof upon 
the county and the towns through which i aid road passes. 

At the Charlestown end of the turnpike stood the house now 
known as the Perkins house, on a lot just easl of Austin street. 
It appears much the same that it did Fifty or seventy-five years 
ago. The toll-house, a small detached building, stood on the 
same lot between the house and the roadway. This and the turn- 
pike gate disappeared years ago. At the lime of the burn- 
ing of the Convent building, this horse was occupied by one 
Kidder, who was toll-keeper at the time. Afterward Mr. Perkins 
bought it; he was the last toll-taker on the turnpike. He died 
about 1881. This house is the only building standing in Somer- 
ville, if not in Medford, that stood along the turnpike originally. 
It is still owned by members of the Perkin s family. 

Concerning the old mill which had bet n op< rated by George 
Cutter for some years, Wilson Quint had bought the properl 
short time before this. I knew him well. Up o tin 
purchase Mr. Quint had never run a tide 

of the amount of Unseasonable and uncomfortable labor attending 
it. The mill was in bad shape; lie spent much mono;, in repair- 


ing the property. The sawing of mahogany logs was on the de- 
cline; other mills, steam-mills, were being started nearer to or in 
the city, obviating the necessity of rafting the logs from below 
bridges to the mill two miles or more. Evidently that side of the 
mill added nothing to the profits of die establishment. Probabl) 
Cutter was tired of it. It was, therefore, upon the gristmill that 
Quint must rely for his living. There were two runs of stone, 
and the grinding was good. Farmers and storekeepers brought 
the corn, wheat, oats, etc., to the mill, and waited for the product. 
It was a busy place. He kept seven horses, and employed five 
men, which would indicate that independently of the business 
brought to his mill by the farmers and others, he hauled to and 
from much grain with his own teams for the wholesale dealers n 
Boston, who received grain by vessel chiefly in those days, ele- 
vators being unknown. Then came an unexpected and stunning 
blow from none other than the county commissioners. Fro 
being a private way the turnpike was to develop into a coin 
road. It must be improved, in fact, rebuilt, and the work w i*. 
begun. The way was closed to all travel; only for a short period 
was Quint able to pass even over the private way known 
"Gypsy lane/' which left the turnpike at a point nearly opposite 
the mill, and opened on to Main streeet, Medford, where the en- 
trance to Combination Park is now; after that he was completel) 
isolated; all business was cut oft. lie was fenced out, frozen o 
starved out. Financially it resulted in a dismal failure, and Quint 
was obliged to find other business. _ He could get no redress 
finally after the avenue was opened he sold the property to a man, 
a neighbor, for an entirely different use; the purchaser, as £ 
informed me, cheated him outrageously, so that taking it all in a' 1 
Quint had a hard experience on the turnpike. 

I recall a scene that happened at Uti\ Fisk's house one spring 
morning in '65. Fisk, big, ruddy, somewhat gray, lived in a 
little one-story house just oh the turnpike on "Gypsy Lane" 
the borders of the old canal just about at the easterly end of 
Combination Park propert) ; the site is still visible; in faet. a p 


tion of the old house, the first floor, is still there, also the ruins 
of the barn near by. His brickyard adjoined the premises. I 
was driving in from Medford ; having a little business there, I 
drove across from the turnpike to his dooryard; it was yet early; 
Fisk in his shirt sleeves, evidently had left the breakfast-table to 
talk with me just outside his door. While thus engaged one of 
his men, his coat off, no hat on his head, rushed around the east- 
erly end of the house, throwing his arms wildly about his head, 
his face white as a sheet, and his eyes bulging with excitement, 
and shouted, "My God! they have killed the President! Abe 
Lincoln's dead! Shot!'' He ran all the way from Temple street, 
near Broadway, across lots to tell the sad news. He nearly col- 
lapsed after delivering his message The excitement about that 
little house was intense, the family, the brickmakers, the teamsters 
all crowded about us, and stood dazed by the awful intelligence. 
All day I could hear that terrible cry ringing in my ears. It was 
the most tragic of anything I ever experienced, and something I 
can never forget. 

When Somerville, in 1842, was incorporated, the names of 
these brickmakers appear on the assessors' books as in business, 
presumably upon the turnpike: Edward Cutter, Fitch Cutter, 
Benjamin Hadley, and Silas Kinsley. There are also recorded 
that same year as residents of the town, these names that later 
developed into brickmakers along the same road: Gardner T. 
Ring, Joseph P. Sanborn, John Sanborn, David Washburn, Ben- 
jamin Fisk, Chauncey Holt and William jaques, so that our 
sketch in great measure, has to do with some of the originals of 
Somerville. Sturdy men they were and contributed not a little 
to the upbuilding of the town. 

For many years brickmaking was the great industry along 
the turnpike. It is estimated that at least twenty million bricks 
per year were made between the Gi r! -town line anil the Cutter 
mill. Ten thousand cords of wood alone were teamed over the 
turnpike yearly, to say nothing of great quantities of sand. Most 
of the wood was landed from schooners below Maiden bridge ; 


this was spruce and hemlock, — round wood. After being thrown 
on to the wharf men were employed to split it, it being considered 
profitable to buy it ''round" and split it afterward ; it would meas- 
ure more. The sand came largely from the Simpson farm in 
West Somerville, and from beyond Alewifc brook in Arlington, 
although some was found near by. Of course the entire quantity 
of manufactured brick was teamed over the turnpike as well, so 
that taken together the brick industry contributed no mean pro- 
portion of the receipts from tolls of the old turnpike. Who did 
the work? In the earlier days the workmen were Yankees from 
the back country, from the New 1 lampshire and Maine farms 
largely. They were paid twelve dollars a month and board, work- 
ing from sunrise till the slars appeared in the evening. After- 
ward the Irish, green from the bogs, were employed. These after 
a time gave way to the bluenoses from Nova Scotia, while all 
these later years French Canadians have monopolized the busi- 
ness of making bricks. They received from twenty-six to thirty 
dollars a month and board. In the early days when Yankees did 
the work the clay was dug out by hand; as the pit increased in 
depth the clay had to be shoveled over two oMhree times before 
it reached the surface, which is very different from. the methods of 
to-day, where steam-shovels and cars do tlie work in many 
modern yards. Some of the brickmakers owned the land where 
they operated, the others bought the clay of the Jaques people; 
50 to 75 cents per thousand bricks brought in quite a goodly in- 
come, if the digging the clay out did leave the landscape marred 
and broken. 

For a few years the Massachusetts Brick company made brick 
by machinery at their yard nearly opposite Temple stre< 
bricks were not a success, however, and the company soon re- 
tired from business. Hand-made bricks, somehow, like hand- 
made pottery, are hard to improve upon. Every year brou da 
green hands to the yards; the older had a \\ . eying the 

fresh arrivals; for instance, when the kilns were set ready to burn, 
the entire outside must be plastered over with clay, to keep in the 


heat; this was done by wetting up portions of clay and daubing 
it on with the hands until the whole surface was covered. This 
was generally a rainy-day job. When ready for this work the 
green hand was sent to the next yard to borrow a "daubing-iron" 
for the purpose. The hands at the other yard understood the 
situation, and while admitting the existence of the tool concluded 
that the next yard beyond had borrowed it of them, and he would 
have to go there for it ; and so the new arrival was sent from yard 
to yard until it dawned upon him that he was being fooled, and 
he would return only to be laughed at. 

Sometimes a proprietor would drive a sharp trade with a 
fresh arrival, would offer him a smaller rate per month than was 
being paid, but tell him he might divide the ashes after the sev- 
eral burnings with two or three other green hands like himself 
just hired. Knowing that in his country wood-ashes had a 
value, he would accept the terms, only to find when the first kiln 
was burned that there; were no ashes remaining. In burning 
bricks complete combustion occurs; at all events, no ashes are 

It would be safe to state, perhaps, that of all the brick- 
makers along the turnpike, Mark Lusk made himself felt more 
than the others; financially stronger, perhaps, than the others, he 
was looked up to by the smaller n ikers, some of whom were in 
his debt and carried on the business with the aid of Fisk's money. 
He owned twenty-two acres of land,— Clay land and ledge, — was 
more progressive than the others, for it was Mark Fisk and Gard- 
ner Ring who bought of the patentees the sole right to make and 
sell in Eastern Massachusetts glazed bricks, tiles, etc. This was 
in 1859. Unlike the white enamelled brick of to-day, such . 
see in the subway, their process put a gloss on the comnn . 
bricks; but the movement was too soon by a generation, and 
if any, were ever put upon the market. Next in imporl 
among the brickmakcrs was David Washburn. A part o 
years he operated two yards. The older residents of Sonu 
will remember him ; he was a ven luge man, had a sligl i« 


pediment in his speech, a man of great energy and business ability. 
His two sons are now carrying on the business that he establi -he I, 
being located in Everett, Mass. On the site of the Broadway 
Park, William jaqucs, a son of the original colonel, had a yard, 
not, as I remember it, a very large one, but still big enough to en- 
able him to be remembered among the manufacturers of the 
times. Samuel Littlefield, afterwards a storekeeper at the corner 
of Temple street and Broadway, was also a successful maker 01 

His yard was located on Broadway Park along the banks of 
the canal at one time, and later Ik- made bricks opposite Temple 
street. At the yard located on the park, at a point near what is 
now Chauncey avenue, a foot-bridge crossed the canal, and a 
spring of pure water bubbled up just by the bridge. Some of 
you may remember it. Mr. Littlefield was a California pioneer 
and began brickmaking about 1857. I have said that many of 
the brickmakers bought the clay of Colonel Jaques; the latter 
used to refer to the former as his "tenants," and every year when 
cherries were ripe would invite them to come on a certain day 
and pick and eat cherries to their hearts' content. It was a red 
letter day for the brickmakers. 

There was a brickmaker, Chauncey Holt, who lived on Broad- 
way (the big elm standing now in the middle of the road was just 
by the front or street end of his house), for whom Chauncey ave- 
mie was named. There was Albert Kenneson, also, who lived 
nearly opposite Holt, another of the turnpike brickmakers. Both 
were quite successful in business and owned considerable n 
tate in their respective locations. Benjamin Parker was also one 
of the number; in fact, I think, one of the originals on the turn- 
pike, older than any I have mentioned. He lived on Perkins 
street, on land now occupied in part by the Davidson Rubber 
company, in an old-fashioned square house. He was a genial old 
gentleman as I recall him, the father of the late Captain Benjamin 
F. Parker of the Somerville company in the Civil war. His hos- 
pitality was very marked, and many of the last generation could 


testify to the genuineness of his greeting and the abundance of 
his table. In addition to these, there were the late Edward Cut- 
ter, whose residence is still standing near Cross street, and known 
as the Wyman place, Calvin Kinsley, John Sanborn, James Shute, 
Godfrey B. Albee, Benjamin Hadley, and George Foster, who did 
business on the turnpike. The last two arc the only living repre- 
sentatives of the original brickmakers on the "Ten Hills Farm." 

Joseph P. Sanborn manufactured near the corner of Austin 
street and the turnpike, being the nearest yard to the toll-house. 
His son, William A. Sanborn, succeeded to the business of his 
father, and has the distinction oi" being the last maker of bricks, 
not only along the turnpike, but an\ where in Somerville. 
yard has but just been cleared up, and with it the brick industry 
vanishes from our midst. Yes, true it is that what was, twenty 
years ago, a leading industry in Somerville has gone forever. 
The brickyards, too valuable to be worked as such, have given 
wav to the march of improvement and are mostly occupied for 
other uses, or have furnished room for the homes of our ever- 
increasing population. The old smoking kiln-houses, the un- 
sightly grinding-mills, the woodpiles, the workmen in their ab- 
breviated costumes, the slop of the yard, and the half-dried bricks 
have, slipped away from us, but the clay of "Ten Hills Farm," 
purified by fire, is still much in evidence in the great city yond i , 
and, in fact, all about us. The brickmakers have this at least to 
their credit, that out of it all, out of the digging and the grinding, 
and the striking and the carrying-off, and the haking-up pro. 
out of the labor by day, and the vigils around and about the burn- 
ing kilns by night, resulting at last in the perfect brick, they have 
been instrumental somehow in building up a great metropolis, 
and have literally and permanently painted that metropolis red. 




Amos Tufts, the second son of Nathan, Sr., was almost en- 
tirely identified with Charlestown proper, where some of his de- 
scendants still live. 

Nathan, the youngest son of Nathan, Sr., was also a resident 
of Charlestown after his boyhood, and was an extensive butcher 
and tanner there. He also possessed much landed property in 
Somerville, owning the large farms around the Powder House 
and W'alnut hill afterwards owned by his nephews, Charles and 

Peter, the second son of .Peter of Milk Row, born in ! i 
was established on a farm on Winter hill. Many remember the 
old house near the westerly corner of Central street and Broad- 
way, before its removal to Lowell street. Peter married an elder 
sister of his brother Nathan's wife, — Anne Adams, for whom the 
Somerville Daughters of the Revolution named their chapter. 
They had a large family of children, of whom only Peter, John, 
Joseph, and Sarah were especially connected with this town. 
"Peter Tufts of Winter Pi ill,'' as this Peter is styled, was a farm r 
and large landholder. Pie served on the board of selectmen of 
old Charlestown in 1781. lie died in 1791, and his wife in 1813. 

These sisters — Anne and Mary (Adams) Tufts were women 
of strong character and great natural vigor of constitution. The 
elder brother married the younger sister, the younger brother the 
elder sister. In their respective homes in the early days of the 
Revolution they rendered service to their country no less ii . 

portant than that of the male members of their families. After 
the battle of Bunker Hill, Anne Tufts assisted in binding up the 
wounds of eight wounded soldiers who were brought to her 
house; and later in the war when a pari of Burgoyne's army was 
encamped as prisoners on Winter hill, she went to tiie camp and 
nursed all night the dying wife of one of the prisoners: Years 
afterward that soldier journeyed from Canada, where lie had set- 
tled after the war, and sought out Mrs. Tufts to thank her again 
for that service and to ask her to point out the spot of his wife's 

Peter, the eldest son of Peter and Anne (Adams) Tufts, was 
born in the old house on Winter hill in 1753. He married Han- 
nah Adams, a niece of Anne Adams. He settled in early life on 
the Royal farm in Medford on the site of the present trotting- 
park, and here all of his children were born. It is related that 
Peter was one of the party that fortified Dorchester Height:., 
which compelled the evacuation of Boston. Such precautions 
were observed that the wheels of the wagons were muffled, and 
the men themselves were in their stocking feet. In 1788, Peter 
bought of his cousin, Daniel Tufts, the farm opposite the Powder 
House, afterwards owned by Charles Tufts, and in 1806 built 
upon it the large three-storied mansion house taken down a few 
years ago. This house was within the limits of Medford till 1811, 
when, through the efforts of Mr. Tufts, a small triangular piece of 
land, including the house-lot at the corner of Broadway and Elm 
street, was set off to Charlestown. Air. Tufts died in 1832. ( M 
his eleven children, Peter and Joel were the only ones especially 
identified with Somerville. Sons 'Thomas and Aaron settled in 
New York state, and have numerous descendants ; the daughters 
Hannah and Anne married respectively Samuel Tufts, jr., and 
Isaac Tufts. 

Peter Tufts, Jr., son of the Peter last named, was born in 
1774. He twice married, — first Martha, the daughter of Lieuten- 
ant Samuel and Margaret (Adams'! Locke, ot West Cambridge; 
and second, Anne Benjamin, daughter <<i Deacon Ephraim Cut- 


ter. He had twelve children. Peter Tufts, Jr., lived a li 
great activity. Pie was keeper of the Powder House, and wh 
1815 the powder was transferred to the new storehouse at th 
of Magazine street, Cambridgeport, he continued as keeper, 
up. his residence near the magazine and died there in 1825. 
Tufts was a civil engineer by profession, and among the m 
Peters is designated as "Peter, the surveyor." ' He drew a plan i 
Charlestown in 1818, and the mass of plans that he left b 
him shows how laboriously he was engaged in the surv 
public and private property. In public life he was promi 
having been trustee of schools, selectman for most of the 
between 1S06 and 181V, assessor for several terms and repres 
tive 'to the General Court for six terms, between the years 1 N 
and 1819. His numerous descendants are scattered far and 
through many states, but have been but little identified with S 

John Tufts, the second hem of Peter of WinferHill, wa 
scientific farmer and gardener. During the Revolution, . 
father established him on the farm the house of which is 
rented by the Somerville Historical society. This house has 1 i 
in possession of the family ever since, being now owned by 
Dr. Fletcher, the only child of the late Oliver Tufts. So nut 
has been written of this — the headquarters of General Pee, — t. 
it is unnecessary to repeat what is well-known to the men:: 
the society. John Tufts was born in 1755. He married I 
beth Perry, who was a granddaughter of James Tufts of Medf< 
a descendant of the first Peter's second son James. It may be i 
served in passing that this branch of the Tufts family, thou 
connected with .Somerville, from early times owned a large t;. 
of land on and about the northeasterly slope of Walnut hill, n 
partly occupied by Tufts College. John and Elizabeth Tuft 
thirteen children. Of these, John, Jr., lived for some time in ' 
so-called Caleb Leland house in Elm street. He had desceti 
living in town till recent years; Benjamin lived In the 1! . 
house in Washington street just beyond the abutment, and a 


ried on a milk farm there. He has descendants still living in 
town. Oliver lived in the old Lee house, and carried on his farm 
till his death in 1883. Leonard, who lived in Charlestown, was 
the father of James W. Tufts, who was at one time an apothecary 
in Somerville avenue, near the Bleachery. Mr. Tufts has since 
become well-known as a manufacturer of soda-water apparatus. 
Asa lived in Boston, and was the father of Mrs. Franklin Hender- 
son and the late William Sumner Tufts. 

Joseph Tufts was the third son of Peter of Winter Hill, and 
was born in 1760. He married a daughter of James and Tabitha 
(Binford) Tufts, of Medford, and had cloven children. Joseph in- 
herited the homestead of his father, and lived in it till his death in 
1819. He was a representative to the General Court in 1814, and 
a selectman for the years 1815-16-17. His eldest son was a 
graduate of Harvard College, and a lawyer of Charlestown within 
the Neck. Sons Bernard and Asa married and left town. 
Abigail, the eldest daughter, and Edmund, the youngest son, lived 
in the old homestead. Edmund was intimately connected with 
the early history of this town, and his sign on the old house, 
"Edmund Tufts, Printer," is still remembered. For some years 
he did the printing for the new town. of Somerville and its inhabi- 
tants, and we find his name on most of the early town reports. 
He issued a Somerville Directory in 1851, a pamphlet of thirty- 
two pages. Edmund was a cultivated, genial man of somewhat 
portly figure, and in the words of his sister was "a very pleasant 
brother." All the children loved him and welbup the hill near 
the tower in Mt. Auburn cemetery a stone was erected to "Uncle 
Edmund Tufts." 

The two younger sons of Peter were Asa and Thomas. The 
former is the ancestor of the highly respected family of Dover, 
N. H.; the latter settled, in Lexington, I ait grandchildren in the 
persons of Mrs. S. Z. Bowman and the late Albeit N. Tufts, re- 
turned to live near the old domain of their ancestor. 

Peter's youngest daughter, Sarah, was the wife of Joseph 
Adams, a daughter of whom was the wife of the late John C. 

Magoun. Sarah Tufts lias left descendants in the Magoun 
Fitzes, Woodses, Hawkinses, and Mrs. Heald, the regent of tli 
Anne Adams Tufts chapter of the Daughters of the Revolution 
all of whom have dwelt in town for longer or shorter periods. 

Timothy, the third son of Peter of Milk Row, who was ! 
in 1735, received from his father a farm on Elm street, at r 
corner of Willow avenue. The dwelling house of this farm 
familiar as being the one standing in Elm street, the second fr< 
Willow avenue. This house was built about a year before th 
Revolution, and replaced an older one which stood on a kn< II 
by a large elm tree somewhat farther back from the 
Timothy Tufts was a prominent man in public affairs. He \v: 
frequently chosen moderator of the town meeting and was 
lectman for most of the years between 1780 and 1792. He i 
always spoken of in the records as Timothy Tufts, JEsquire 
his commission as justice of the peace, signed by Governor Jol 
Hancock, may be still seen hanging in the sitting-room i 
old house. Timothy married Anne Adams, a niece "of the wife 
his brothers, Nathan and Peter. They had sons Timothy, Al 
Isaac, and Joseph. 

Timothy, the eldest son, lived in Broadway at the w 
corner of Cross street. 'I his was an ancient house facinf 
road, with a long roof sloping nearly to the ground in the re r. 
Forty years ago, an old grass-grown cellar and a well wei 
only traces of its having been. Timothy, Jr.. mar: 
Beulah Prentice, and had children of whom Timothy, the elde t, 
is the only one especially connected with Somerville terri 
second, Submit Flagg. by whom he also had children. Tim 
Jr., who was a considerable holder of real estate in town, died . 
1802, three years before Ins fat her. The third Timothy n 
Susan Cutter, and had a large family, scarcely any of w 
reached adult age. Mr. and Mrs. Tufts died in middle life, 
Timothy built the spacious brick house in Broadway, neai 
corner of Cross street, afterwards owned by the late Ed) 
ter. Jonas, a half-brother of the last-named Timothy, remo^ 


to Walpole, N. H., and became a prominent and esteemed citizen 
-of that town. 

Abijah, the second son of Timothy, St\, graduated from Har- 
vard College in 1790, taught school in town, studied medicine and 
removed to Virginia, where he practiced till his death in 1815. 
Isaac, third son of Timothy, inherited the homestead and 
j lived on it all his life. He married twice and had many children. 
[ Mr. Timothy Tufts, who now owns and occupies the ancestral 
; house, is the only surviving child of Isaac, and, in fact, is the only 
; descendant of the first Timothy of the Tufts name now living in 
, Somerville. Isaac, like most of the residents of Milk Row, car- 
i ried on a milk farm, and carried milk to market, through Charles- 
. town, and sometimes through Roxlmry to Boston. 

Joseph Tufts, youngest son of Timothy, Sr., built the Caleb 
Leland house in Elm street. He subsequently removed to King- 
. field, Me., and is the ancestor of a large family of Tuftses in that 
and neighboring towns. 

Samuel Tufts, fourth son of Peter of Milk Row, lived with 
his father and inherited the homestead. He long survived his 
brothers, and died in 1828, at the age of ninety, tie is remem- 
bered by some of the family as a tall, white-haired, rather stern 
old gentleman, who would often be sunning himself on his porch 
as the children from the old schoolhouse at the corner of the 
burying ground would come to his house for water. He was 
selectman in 1780-'S1, and held other positions of trust. In 
1808, the records say, he was employed to build for $235 the 
bridge over the creek, where the Fitchburg railroad now crosses 
Washington street. The record also informs us that he exceeded 
the appropriation by $3.30. There are no descendants of Samuel 
of the Tufts name now living in Somerville; but his daughters 
have left descendants in this city now represented by the Frost, 
Raymond, Johnson, Loring, and Edmands families. 

Aaron, the youngest son of Peter of Milk Row, settled in 
Medford and there died in early manhood. His only ^n\, the 
Hon. Aaron Tufts, lived in central Massachusetts, and was a plo- 

sician, manufacturer, representative, state senator, and just. 
the court of sessions. 

We have thus imperfectly thrown together a few memori 
partly of record, partly hearsay, regarding a family that 
owned more than a tenth part of the acreage of our territory, 
were so numerous that at evening parties of sixty or se 
persons, on Winter Hill, there would be none but Tuftses or 
relatives present, and a family thai, in the words of Wyman, ' 
justly be considered among the benefactors to the material in- 
terests of the town." Thai: there should have been such a coi 
tration of one family in Charlestown, Medford, and Maiden 
the case of the Tuftses is natural and incident to the uncleve 
condition of the country. But when the country became s< 
and means of communication became easy, it was lil. 
natural that a family should scatter far and wide through ; 
northern and western, and most of the southern states, : 
been the ease with the Tufts family. 


Honorary member of this society, was born in Cambridge, 

iMass., November 10, 1821, and died there December 5, 1901. 

tHe was descended from Martin Saunders, who came from Eng*? 

jland to Boston in 1635, and also from John 1 licks, a member of 

;the Boston Tea Party, who was killed in the battle of Lexington. 

•He was educated in the public schools of Cambridge, and in the 

[Hopkins Classical School. He early became connected with the 
Suffolk Bank of Boston, soon after entering into business on his 

jown account, from which he retired at the age of forty-two. He 

| was an alderman in 18G1 and 1862, and was active in his efforts 

[lor the soldiers of the Civil War. 

In 1868 and 1869 he was chosen with great unanimity 

; :mayor of Cambridge, and held public offices and honorary posi- 
tions in that city for many years. 

As local historian he had few, if any, superiors. It was 

; through his efforts that 'the many historic spots of Cambridge 
were marked with appropriate tablets. lie was first president of 
the Sons of the American Revolution, and for many years of the 

.Cambridge Lyceum. He was a member of the Bunker Hill 

•Monument Association, of the Shepard Memorial Society, of the 

1 Cambridge Club, of the New England Historic Genealogical So- 
ciety, and honorary member of the Somerville Historical Society. 
He married, September 18, ISi!), Mary Brooks Ball, who, 
with four children, survive > him, among them Charles R. Saun- 

; ders, chairman of the election commissioners of Boston. 

Mr. Saunders' tastes were not alone am iquariaft ; he was 

l equally interested in the events of to-day, and (lie questions of the 
coming century; as he once said to I he writer, he ''enjoyed living 
in the past, the present, and the future." ( >f the past he has 
been a faithful recorder, in the present an honored actor, and the 
future will respect him as a true man, a faithful official, and a 
model citizen. 




He was horn in Marblehead, Mass., November -1, 181. S, died 
in Somerville December 19, 1901, and was son of Isaac and Sarah 
Martin (Bowen) Story. Lb was nephew of the Hon. | 
Story, justice of the supreme court of the United States, grand- 
son of Dr. Elisha Story, who was a surgeon in the Revolutionary 
War, a member of the .Sons of Liberty, and of the Tea Party, and 
was one of the patriots who captured the British cannon on Bos- 
ton Common, one of which is now in Bunker Hill monument. 
He fought in the battles of Lexington and Bunker Hill Leside 
General Warren, an intimate friend, and later was in ch, 
the wounded at Winter Hill, and was with Washington i 
Island, While Plains, and Trenton. His maternal grandfather, 
Sergeant, afterwards Lieutenant, Nathan Bowen, was one 
soldiers who, under General bleat h, guarded the Hessian pris- 
oners on Winter Hill, and his father, Isaac Story, commanded 
the Marblehead Light Infantry in the War of 1812. 

Mr. Story was educated at the Lynn Academy, and at the 
Pierce Academy, Middleborough. In 1839, at twenty years oi 
age, he was principal of the Kranklin Academy, Kutztowc 
and afterwards of Bertie Union Academy, North Carolina, 
later taught in Maryland. 1 !>• studied law in Philadelpln 
and in Lynn, Mass. In 181,'i he entered the law i 
Charles Theodore Russell, father of Governor Russell, where In 
was associated with John A. Andrew, later war governor of 
Massachusetts. He was admitted to the bar in 1844, and to 
practice in the United States courts in 1845, p 
the time in Boston until 1873, when he was appoii d jus ice ol 


the police court of Somerville, holding his court in the present 
city hall until the erection of the court house on Bow street. He 
held the office of justice until his death. 

He was married in 1810 to Elizabeth Bowen Woodbury, of 
Beverly, who died in 18S8, and second to Alary Ann Chase, of 

Judge Story came to Soanerville in IS53, and had resided 
here ever since, excepting from 1S57 to 1801. in 1856 he rep- 
resented Samervillt in the legislature, and was for many years 
on its school board. 

He was a student of genealogy and history, a gentleman of 
literary tastes and abilities, his favorite study being Egyptology, 
his research into its history and mysteries extending over very 
many years. 

A widow and three sons survive him. One son, William E., 
is a professor of mathematics in Clark University, another, Fred- 
erick W., is an attorney-at-law in Baltimore, Md., and the third, 
Isaac M., an engineer of great experience, being for some time 
chief engineer of the Boston & Lowell railroad, and now repre- 
senting the city of Somerville in the legislature. 

Judge Story was a gentleman of friendly mien and courtly 
manners, and as ,>a magistrate he tempered justice with mercy and 

His loss is mourned by all who knew him. 



Abbreviations — b. stands for "business in Boston," h. for "house," n. for 
""near," cor. for "corner of," op. for "opposite." The word street wil) be 
omitted as superfluous. 


Booth, Dr. Chauncey, McLean Asylum. 

Bowman, Francis, h. Beacon. 

Boles, John, takes charge of real estate, h. Broadway. 

Bowers, H. F., b. merchant, li. Spring. 

Boynton, Samuel, laborer, h. Franklin, 

Blodgett, Alfred, laborer, li. Franklin. 

Blodgett, Nathan, brick-maker, h. Cambridge. 

Bradbury, Charles, h. Medford turnpike. 

Bradbury, George, carpenter, h. Medford turnpike. 

Bradshaw, Samuel C, h. Joy. 

Bradshaw, Samuel C, Jr., h. corner oi Cambridge and Linwood. 

Bradshaw, Henry, b. refreshments F. H. market, h. Joy. 

Brackett, Thomas O., b. bank messenger, h. Summer, 

Brackett, Samuel E., b. merchant, h. Chestnut. 

Brackett, Charles, b. cabinet maker, li. Mt. Pleasant. 

Brackett, John, cellar stone layer, li. Garden court. 

Brackett, George, ox teamster, h. Garden court. 

Brastow, George O., dealer in real estate, h. Central. 

Brown, Jonathan, Jr., cashier Market Bank, h. Broadway. 

Brown, Edward, laborer, h. Medford. 

Brigham. Joseph B., b. merchant, h. Beacn. 

Bruce, Joseph A., b. trader, h. Cherry. 

Burke, Edward, h. on lane [rom Porter's to Broadway. 

Burbank, Lorenzo, teamster, h. Cambridge street. 

Burroughs, William, teamster, h. Medford turnpike. 

Burns, Peter, charcoal dealer, h. Joy. 


Buttrick, Mrs. M. E., widow, h. Mt. Pleasant. 

Buckingham, Joseph H., U. S. commissioner, h. Beacon. 

Bucknam, Caleb, mason, h. Milk. 

Buddrow, Joseph, Somerville Omnibus Agent, Franklin. 

Cades, W. H., b. apothecary, h. Franklin. 

Casey, Michael, mason, h. Garden covin. 

Calahan, John, yeoman, h. Milk. 

Carlin, John, laborer, h. Cambridge. 

Casey, Michael, bleachery, h. Garden court. 

Castellow, Michael, McLean Asylum. 

Campbell, Owen, laborer, h. Medford. 

Carter, L. D., dealer in brushes, etc., li. Summer. 

ChafTee, Knowlton S., charcoal dealer, h. near Asylum. 

Choat, George, McLean Asylum. 

Clark, Joseph, brickmaker, h. Cambric! 

Clark, Ambrose, accountant, bds. with Joseph Clark. 

Clark, Ramsay, painter, h. Milk. 

Clapp, Isaac, yeoman, h. Broadway. 

Clark, Michael, McLean Asylum. 

Clark, Michael, laborer, rear Cambridgeport. 

Cleaves, Edwin, h. Church. 

Cole, Erastus E., bridge builder, h. Perkins. 

Coles, physician, h. Mount Vernon. 

Cook, Arnold, yeoman, h. Cook Lane. 

Converse, Christopher C, b. grain dealer, li. Broadway. 

Connoly, Owen, laborer, h. Medford. 

Cook, Mrs. Catharine, h. Cambridge. 

Cook, Samuel, b. accountant, h. Cambridge. 

Cobb, Bailey, h. Chestnut. 

Covell, Reuben, b. fish dealer, F. H. market. 

Collins, Thomas G., carpenten, h. near Beech. 

Conant, Leonard, b. F, II. market, h. near Central. 

Corrigen, Henry, gardener, h. Beech. 

Conant, George F., Spring hill. 

Crane, Luther, b. paper manufacturer, h; Perkins. 


Critchett, Thomas, b. inspector, h. Broadway, 

Crimmins, Thomas, laborer, h. Medford. 

Crombie, William C, b. pianoforte maker, h. Dane. 

Crosby, Josiah L., b. bonnets, h. Elm. 

Crowe, William B., carpenter, h. Joy. 

Cummings, Aaron, b. plane maker, h. Joy. 

Cutter, Edward, yeoman, h. Broadway. 

Cutter, Fitch, yeoman, h. Broadway. 

Cutter, Ebenezer F., h. Broadway. 

Cutter, Edward F., merchant, h. Walnut. 

Cutter, Edmund F., b. accountant, h. Mt. Vernon. 

Cutter, Samuel H., h. Broadway. 

Cutter, Henry, h. Broadway. 

Daley, James, gardener, h. Medford. 

Dane, Osgood B., stone dealer, h. Beacon. 

Dane, Osgood, stone dealer, h. Milk. 

Danforth, Willard, brickrnaker, h. Broadway. 

Danforth. David, grocer, h. Milk. 

Darling, B. F., b. jeweller, h. Fufts. 

Darling, Thomas, b- Chestnut. 

Davis, David C, h. Church. 

Davis, Merrill, brickrnaker, h. Cambridge. 

Davidson, John, carpenter, h. Beech. 

Davis, B. H., McLean Asylum. 

Delay, William, laborer, h. \ ine. 

Delano, Thomas I., jeweller, h. Myrtle. 

Demmon, Reuben E., 1). prov sion dealer, h. Elm. 

Denton, Jonathan, carpenter, h. Church. 

Denton, William H., h. Church. 

Devenny, John, teamster, h. Mt. Benedict. 

Denaho, Patrick, blacksmith, li. Milk. 

Dickson, Shadrach, carpenter, h. Church. 

Dingey, Peter, blacksmith, Broadway, 

Dodge, Charles H., b. trader, h. Prospect. 

Dodge, Seward, h. Cambridge'. 


Donnell, Samuel T., ship-master, Bow. 

Dorety, Charles, yeoman, h. Medford. 

Dow, Lorenzo W., yeoman, h. Broadway. 

Draper, Martin, Jr., teacher, h. Broad wa) . 

Draper, Lucius D., Cherry. 

Driscoll, Daniel, laborer, h. near railroad. 

Duffee, Patrick, laborer, h. Prospect. 

Dugan, William, b. machinist, h. Cambridg 

Dugan, John, h. Cambridge. 

Duross, James, h. Medford Turnpike. 

Edgerly, John S., b. grain dealer, h. Broadway. 

Edgerly, Lewis C, carpenter, h. Medford. 

Edmands, Horace F., b. accountant, h. Sprii 

Elliot, Joseph, Prospect depot. 

Emerson, Enoch, b. blacksmith, h. Porter. 

Emerson, Thomas, yeoman, h. Broadway. 

English, Jerome A., b. blacksmith, h. Milk. 

English, Mrs., h. Medford. 

Evans, Benjamin, b. baggage wagon, Franklin. 

Everett, Erastus D., b. dry goods, h. Beech. 

Farmelow, John, laborer, h. Church. 

Farmelow, George, laborer, h. Church. 

Fairbanks, Franklin, b. merchant, h. Elm. 

Farnsworth, John C, b. jeweller, h. Mt. Pl< 

Fisk, James, brickmaker, h. Derby. 

Fitz, Robert B., b. editor, h. Cambridge. 

Field, Nathan, yeoman, Milk. 

Fisk, Asa, b. merchant tailor, h. Mount \ i 

Fitz, Abel, h. Mount Vernon. 

Fisher, Mrs., widow, h. Porter. 

Flemmin, Nicholas, laborer, Beacon. 

Flanagan, Edward, laborer, h. Milk. 

Flanagan, John, laborer, h. Spring hill. 

Foley, William, laborer, h. Medford 

Fogg, George S., b. clerk, h. Cross. 

Forbes, John, h. Joy. 

Foy, Oliver, brickmaker, h. Lin wood. 

Fox, Joseph, engineer, h. Beacon. 

Fox, Lewis M., brickmaker, h. Derby. 

Foster, Robert, lumber dealer, h. Low. 

Forster, Charles, cabinet dealer, h. Broadway, 

Fosdick, Daniel, shoe dealer, h. Milk near bleaehery. 

Freeman, Moses LL, b. machinist, h. Spring - . 

French, George, brickmaker, h. Medford. 

Frost, Samuel T., yeoman, h. Milk. 

Fultz, Joseph, blacksmith, h. Elm. 

Fulsom, Benjamin W., furniture dealer, Lime. 

Fullick, G. K., painter, h. Bow. 

Garrett, Robert, h. Beacon. 

Galletly, James, twine manufacturer, h, Cambridge. 

Gates, William,, provision dealer, li. cor. Cambridge and Dane. 

Gay, Francis C, milk dealer, h. Walnut. 

Gay, John, blacksmith, h. Linden. 

Garven, Thomas, rope-maker, h. Milk. 

Garven, Edward, laborer, h. Milk. 

Gerrish, Samuel, blacksmith, li. Porter. 

Gerry, John W., b. blacksmith, Linden. 

Gerrish, Samuel, b. clothing, h. Porter. . 

Gill, Samuel W., b. letter cutter, h. Garden court. 

Gilbert, Henry, b. merchant, h. Summer. 

Giles, John B., marble worker, h. Cambridge. 

Oilman/ Charles E., town clerk, h. Walnut. 

Glines, Jacob T., brickmaker, Derby. 

Goodhue, Homer, supervisor, McLean Asylum. 

Goodnow, John, b. merchant at K. 1 ; . Cutter's. 

Goodhue, Thomas F. II. , market, h. Bow. 

Gooding, Samuel LL, 1). brass founder, h. Joy. 

Gray, John, carpenter, h. Broa 'way. 

Gray, George W., b. architect, boards with John Gray. 

Graves. William I 7 ., teacher, Court from Elm. 


'Griggs, Charles, b. liquor dealer, h. Laurel. 

Griffin, Ebenezer K., teamster, h. Cambridge, 

Griffin, Theophilus, teamster, h. Bow. 

Griffin, Gilman, carpenter, h. Broadway. 

Guild, Chester, b. tanner and leather dealer, h. Perkins. 

Guild, Chester, Jr., accountant, 1l Perkins. 

Guild, George A., acountant h. Perkins. 

Hadley, George W., wharfinger, h. Hamlet'. 

Hadley, Benjamin, teamster, h. Cambridge. 

Hadley, Mrs. Martha, widow, h. Cambridge. 

Haines, D. J., grocer, h. Broadway. 

Hall, John K., bank officer, h. Mount Pleasant. 

Hall, Isaac, pedlar, h. Cambridge. 

Hall, Ann, widow, h. Bow. 

Hamblin, Samuel, pump maker, h. Cambridge. 

Ham, William, blacksmith, h. Franklin. 

Hall, John G., merchant, h. Summer. 

Hall, John, b. sash and door dealer, h. 2 Chestnut. 

Hall, Mrs. Lydia, widow, h. Elm. 

Hammond, George, b. brass founder, h. Spring. 

Hammond, William, b. iron dealer, h. No. 3 Chestnut. 

Hammond, Artemas, h. Spring. 

Hanson, Joseph, h. Dane. 

Harding, Nathan, b. shipping master, h. Mount Vernon. 

Harrison, Alfred, b. spike maker, h. near L. R. Road. 

Harvey, James, machinst, h. Cambridge. 

Hastings, James, b. bank teller, h. Cambridge. 

Hawkins, Nathaniel, boards with Henry Adams, h. Bow. 

Hawkins, Nathaniel Carlton, clothing dealer, h. Bow. 

Hanley, Michael, teamster, h. Milk. 

Hannaford, Fred W., b. harness maker, h. Prospect hill. 

Hayes, George W., yeoman, h. rear of Broadway. 

Hazletine, Moses, bri.ckmaker, h. leading fro n Broadway to Elm, 

Hewes, Patrick, h. Milk. 

[ Continued, j 



I was born September 5, 1846, in Boston, and moved to 
Somerville July, 1850. 

After having endeavored for almost two years to convince 
my parents that I was old enough to be a soldier, and that I 
ought to go to the war, 1 finally succeeded in getting their con- 
sent, and, accordingly, I enlisted January 13, 18G4, in Company 
M of what was known as the New Battalion of the First Massa- 
chusetts Cavalry, then in camp at Readville, Mass. 

After a short time, the battalion was sent to Giesboro Point, 
near Washington, and from there marched to Warrenton, Ya., 
where the regiment lay in winter quarters, reaching Warrenton 
March 24. 

About the first of May winter quarters were broken up, and 
the regiment, with the rest of the Army of the Potomac, started 
on what is known as the "Wilderness Campaign. " We had a 
chance at some of the fighting, being engaged in the Wilderness 
May 5, and at Todd's "ha vein May 0. 

On May 9 the Cavalry Corps started on "Sheridan's raid 
around Richmond." 

We were in battles at Sampson's Cross Roads Ma} 9, i 
Ashland May 11, and in front of Richmond May 13, 

My horse gave out on the second day of the raid, and I had 
the alternative of either keeping up with the column on I 
of paying an involuntary visit to Richmond and some rebel 
prison. I preferred the former. 

As the column was pushed along rapidly, it was a hard 
tramp, and as we had drawn three days' rations before we 


started, and received no more for over a week, meals were not 
always on time, nor were they luxurious. The section of 
country through which we were marching had been tramped over 
many times by the armies, and was rather bare of eatables. Now 
and then we would capture a little corn meal, and, if we were es- 
pecially fortunate, once in a while a little ham or bacon, but for 
some days the steady diet of some of the men was mush and milk 
(minus the milk). 

From Haxall's Landing, on the James river, about seven 
hundred of us dismounted men were sent back lo Ciesboro Point 
to be re-mounted. 

4 On the night of July i- one hundred and sixty-four muskets 
were issued to every able man in the "Dismounted Camp," so 
called, and the next day we were sent up to Harper's Ferry, as 
infantry, to help head off the raid on Washington, We had our 
share of marching and fighting, and finally part of us got back 
to Giesboro on the twenty-seventh of July. ( )n August '3-1 we 
obtained horses, and on the twenty-fifth we left for the front to 
rejoin the regiment near Petersburg. 

From that time up to March IV, 1.805, we were kept busy, 
picketing, scouting, and raiding; the engagements that 
amounted to anything being Jerusalem I 'lank Road, September 
16, 18G4; Reams Station, September 30; \ aughan Road, Octo- 
ber 1; South Side Railroad, October 27; Bellfield, December 9. 

In the latter part of November, 1864, the regiment, having 
been depleted bv losses and by the return home of men whose 
term of service had expired, was consolidated from twelve to 
eight companies, and I was changed from Company M to Com- 
pany A. On account of the regiment being so small, we were 
sent, on the seventeenth of March, 1805, to ( 'it ■. Point, Va., to do 
provost duty. 

We remained thereuntil April 14, when we were sent io 

On May 2 we start d for Washingt iij vi; Richmond, We 
y — 

\ Vol, L, No. 2 p. 38. On th< oi |uly 4, l& 

muskets were issi etc. 


camped at Arlington Heights and at Fairfax Semina 
Alexandria, remaining there until orders to send us home were 
received. We took part in the grand review of the Army of the 
Potomac in Washington on May 23, and on June 25 we started 
for Massachusetts, reaching Readville on the twenty-eighth. 

I finally received my pay and discharge July 20, 18G5, hav- 
ing "worn the blue" for one year, six months, and one - 
My experience in the service was similar <£o that of thousai. 
others. I was more fortunate than many, for I had no severe 
sicknesses, escaped being wounded, and did not get taken pris- 
oner. It was not pleasant to march all day in a storm, and then 
lie down in the mud at night to try and sleep, and it was not 
pleasant to go hungry ; hut to undergo such discomforts was pan 
of our duty as soldiers. 

The longest interval between meals that I ever had to 
was about thirty-six hours, and 1 was thoroughly hungry by the 
time we got to where we could draw rations. 

I had been in active service only a very short time before 1 
realized that hardtack, salt pork, and coffee made a vei \ 
diet, even if it did seem a little monotonous now and then. 

There were times when we were short of food and short of 
grain for our horses; but, as I look back to those days, the only 
wonder is that the government was able to make the short 
so few, and I do not believe there ever was a war in which the 
soldiers were so well fed and well clothed as were the men of the 
Union Arm v. 

Compliments of 

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Telephone 209, Charlestown. 

Officers of Somewilie Historical Society. 



First Vice-President, 
Second Vice-President, . 
Third Vice-President, 
Recording Secretary, 
Corresponding Secretary, 
Treasurer, . 
Librarian and Curator, . 

Charles D. Elliot, 

J. 0. Hayden, Chairman, 

L. B. Pillsbury, Chairman, 
John F. Ayer, 
Charles D. Elliot, 


L. Roger Wentworth, 

historic Sites. 

Dr. E. C. Booth. 

essays and Addresses. 

Eibrary and Cabinet. 

Alfred M. Cutler, Chairman, 
Levi L. Hawes, 


B. B. D. Bourne, Chairman, 

(With one other to be chosen by the com 

Press and Clippings. 

Anna P. Vinal, Chairman, 
M. Agnes Hunt, 

Marion Knapp. 

Mrs. Barbara Galpin, Chairman, 
Sam Walter Foss, 
Frank M. Hawes, 



Seth Mason, Chairman, 
Mrs. L. B. Pillsbury, 

Col. E. C. Bennett. Chairman, 

Mrs. H. E. Heald. 

military Kecords. 

The President, 

Levi L, Hawes. 


The First Vice-President, 

John F. Ayer. 
Luther B. Pillsbury, 
Levi L. Hawes. 
Seth Mason. 
Florence E. Carr. 
Mrs. V. E. Ayer. 
Oliver Bacon. 
Alfred M. Cutler. 

Anna P. Vinal. 
Charles D. Elliot, 

Anna P. Vinal, 
Lizzie F. Wait, 
Mrs. V. E. Ayer. 

L. P. Sanborn, 
Mrs. H. E. Heald. 

Chas. W. Colman. 
mittee. ) 

Maty A. Haley. 
Lucy M. Stone, 

Sara A. Stone, 
Nelson H. Grover, 
Charles I. Shepard. 

Mrs. E. S. Hayes, 
Miss E. A. Waters, 

John H. Dusseault, 

The Treasurer. 



■ ; 



, ' '1 








The early settlers of Charlestown built their homes not far 
from the present City square, and then lotted out the remainder 
of the peninsula into corn fields and planting lots. 

Farming and stock raising were among their chief em- 
ployments, and as the peninsula was too small for tillage 
and pasturage both, they ''agreed and concluded" that their 
cattle should be pastured outside the neck upon the main land, 
and ■ they chose for grazing grounds lands which are now a 
large part of the city of Somerville. This territory belonged 
to the town. It is variously spoken of in the old records as 
"the main," the ''Cow commones," "the Stinted Pasture," "the 
Stinted Common," and "the land without the neck," meaning 
the land beyond the neck. This tract embraced what is now 
East Somerville, Prospect, Central, and Spring hills, the south- 
erly slope of Winter hill, and a considerable portion of West 
Somerville,, its boundaries not being very clearly defined at that 

The dividing of this common ground among the citizens, or 
stinting of the pasture, as they termed it, received attention as 
early as 1635 — a committee being then appointed to consider the 
matter. At a town meeting held February 6, 1686 (27th 
1637 n. s.) four of the inhabitants, viz., "William Brackenbury, 
Ezekial Richeson, Thomas Ewar, 'and Ralph Sprague." were 
chosen to assist the selectmen in "Stinting the common and con- 
sidering of the great Lotts according to pportion." They were 
to meet monthly for that purpose. It] making their apportion- 
ment of rights in the common pasturage, the committee at this 
time (163?) decided "to value a person at three cows," and in 
their records of later years, the size of a common or stint of land 
for one cow was one and one -half acres, so that it would seen; 
from these records that each settler was entitled in this division 

to rights in four and one-half acres of grazing land, although this 
afterwards may have been changed. 

In 1633 the rights of the different owners in the Stinted pas- 
ture were registered in the town's book of possessions, and 
again in 1G48 and in 1(153-4. At a meeting of the selectmen on 
the 'thirteenth day of February, 1657, n. s., all the proprietary 
rights of the several inhabitants of Charlestown in this Stinted 
pasture, with the concurrence of all the proprietors themselves, 
were confirmed and by their general consent were "Recorded 
and Ratified to stand Legal and vallid to their use forever." 

There were recorded and confirmed at this time, the titles of 
ownership to 166} commons, or presumably about 250 acres of 
land to forty-three different persons. Each title was recorded 
in the town records somewhat as follows, viz. : — 

"Confirmed and Entred for Thomas Lynde, senior — nine- 
teen commons. 

I say to him and his heires — 

John Greene, Recorder." 

This John Greene was ruling elder of the Charlestown 
church, and town clerk for many years. 

In 1681 action was again taken by the inhabitants of 
Charlestown regarding the division of the Stinted common. 

Between 1636, when the first apportionment was made 
among the people of the town, and 1681, there were numerous 
transfers of titles to rights in the common, from one owner to 
another, but in none of these transfers, nor in the records of 
1638, and later years, or in the confirmation of titles in 1657, is 
there any description of lots by bounds, or any reference to 
rangewavs or streets, or any plan mentioned covering the terri- 
tory laid out and allotted. It is probable that some survey and 
plan of this section was made, as the people of that day were 
methodical in their public matters, and would hardly have at- 
tempted the granting of innumerable titles in a tract of several 
hundred acres of land, without some plat or plan to guide them. 

Why it was deemed necessary in 1681 to again revive 
question of titles in the Stinted Pasture I do not know. The 
question may have arisen before, and evidently did then, whi 
or not these titles were permanent; there seems to have 
nothing in the record of the division of 1636, or in any other 
record previous to 1(581, to show whether their tenure was for- 
ever or temporary, but I think the persons receiving the grant s 
believed that they were for all time. In every sale previous 
1681, the deed simply gives the number of cow commons, but 
does not locate them, yet, in most of the transfers between 
owners, these commons are deeded to the grantees and their 
heirs forever, and I think all were supposed to be thus conveyed 

The idea of dividing or stinting common lands and pastures 
was not new; the custom dates back in England, Sweden, and 
probably other countries, to the earliest times. Among the early 
bequests mentioned in the reports of the Charities Commis- 
sioners of England is one to the poor of the town of Marston, 
Oxfordshire, where it has been the custom from time immemo- 
rial to grant to a certain number of the poor of this town ;. 
common, or right of pasturage for one cow each, on waste land. 
In England this right of cow commons arose, and became a law 
of the land probably in feudal times, when the lords of the manor 
granted lands to tenants or retainers for services performed oi 
expected; and as these tenants could not plough or improve 
their lands without cattle, it became a necessity, and later a law, 
that the tenant should have cow commons or rights of pastu 
for his cattle in the waste lands of the manor; other rights were 
granted tenants, such as the right jto fish, to cut peat, etc., but 
these rights of commonage evidently did not carry with them 
any fee in the land. A knowledge of the fact that in Eng 
this tenure was limited may have caused « doubt in the minds of 
the Charlestownians as to whether their fee in these c< 
mons was absolute or limited, or whether, indeed, they had an\ 
fee at all, or only rights of pasturage, under the previous di\ 


sions. This, together with the repeated attempts of the Royal 
government to revoke their charter, the fact that, when so re- 
voked, all common lands would revert to the crown, the vague- 
ness of former allotments, and disputes concerning land claims 
may each or all have been the cause which led to a reapportion- 
ment in 16*81, the records of which begin as follows, viz. : — 

"Charles Town, 1680: ffebruary : 11th." [Feb. 24, 1681 
n. s.] "Att a meeting of the proprietors of the Stinted Common, 
as to a laying out a part of it, Then was put to Vote these fallow- 
ing proposalls, & all of them past In the affirmative: — 

1 . — That there should be one Acre & a halfe layd out to a 

2. — Where they would have this I .and layd out, it was Voted 
& past for the neerr or hither part of the Comon. 

3. — Whether this Land should be for ever or for years, It 
past for a good Inheritance in ffee Simple. 

4. — That a Comitte may be Chosen for the heareing & 
proveing & confirmjng of the Titles of Clajmers to the respective 

5. — The Committee were then Chosen by Vote, & are, 
viz. — 

Mr. Joseph Lynde f Capt. Ricd Spra^ue f,. t T TT , 

T -n i.t- It- r „ CaptLar: Hammond 

James Russell Esqr. I Lieut Jno Cutter ( 

6. — That Sergt Ricd Lowden, Josiah Wood, Snr, and Tho: 
White be Impowrd to gether Up the Rent due <to ye proprietors, 
wch mony is to be delivered to sd Comitte for defraying of 
Charges that arise by Surveying, Laying out & Clearing of, &c. 

7. — That the Common be measured by the Care of ye Com- 
mittee so that ye numbr of Acres thereon may be known. 

8. — That it be left wth ye Comitte well are Empowered to 
raise mony proportionable from Each Common to defray ye 
Charge that may arise on the aforesd worke of the Comon. 

9. — That the highwayes betwixt ye ranges be Twenty-four 
ffoott wide." 

The committee appointed by this meeting reported on De- 
cember 15 (25th n. s.j, 1681, as follows: ''First, that wee have 
wth much paines & Care, examined ye Sundry Claims that have 
been made by any persons unto A propriety in the Sd Comon, 
or Stinted pasture; And doc find the respective proprieties, or 
number of Commons mentioned in A Lis herewth presented ; to 
be the clear & Honest rights of the persons respectively named 
in the Sd List All wch doe Amount unto the Numbr of Three 
hundred Thirty one Commons." 

"Secondly; that the proportions of commons of right belong- 
ing to each prson as in the Aforesd List are Expressed, Shall be 
Confirmed by the proprietors, may be Recorded in the Town 
book, to Stand as their proper Estaite to them And their heirs for 
Ever, the Charge of recording to be paid by the proprietors: 
This wee propose as necessary for the future Settlement of the 
right of each proprietor; for the prevention of all after disputes 
relating there Unto." > 

"Thirdly, Wee conceive it necessary that one Acre & A halfe 
of Land to A Common (According to the Vote of the proprietor). 
be Laid out at the hither end of the Comon, Excluding all neces- 
sary Highwayes, both publicke and private." 

"Fourthly, Wee propose that the piece of Land lying next 
the Towne, viz.: from Jno. Mousalls gate, Upon A Lire Over 
to the lower Corner of Thomas Crasswells Land, Land 
within that line Unto the Neck of Land, be Left in Common for 
publick military Exercises. &c." 

''Fifthly, It will be necessary yt the laying out of the pro; 
tions of Land to Each Commoner, or proprietor, be referred Unto 
A Committe of meet prsons to be i.chosen together with the 
Artist, who are to Regulate the Same, According to their 
discretions, in the most Equitable manner; the proprietors Voted 
the first committe to manage this 5th Article." 

"Sixthly, ye Lotts be made by the ^d Committe & Num- 
bered according to the Xumber of the proprietor, who, upon 


timely notice given, shall meet & draw their Lotts, and according 
as the Number of their Lotts shal be, So Shall their proportions 
of Land be Laid out neer or further off, the Line to begin at Jno 

"Seventhly, That the Remainder of the Common wch lies 
Undivided bee cleered of brush & Superfluous Trees ; yt it may- 
be rendered fit for pasturage, & ytt it be referred ito the Comitte 
to contrive the most Expedient waves to Effect it." 

The land herein reserved for military exercises is now that 
part of Charlestown adjoining Somerville between Main street 
and Cambridge street, which are out* Broadway and Washington 
street. This land, some twenty acres in extent, remained a com- 
mon until 1793, when the town sold it to the Hon. Thomas Rus- 
sell, and from him it descended to Richard Sullivan. The pres- 
ent Sullivan square is all that there is remaining open and public 
of this military common. On January 2, 1681 (January 12, lfiS'2, 
n*. s.) the committee again reported, giving a list of persons to 
whom the 331 commons mentioned in their previous report had 
been allowed ; this list is too long for this paper, but the territory 
laid out, and which it covered, seems to be that part of our city 
which lies east of Central street, between Washington street, 
Bow street, and Somerville avenue on the south, and Broadway 
on the north, or East Somerville and Prospect and Central hills. 
It is doubtful, however, if all the land up to Central street was 
actually divided at this time, for although the proprietors met to 
draw their lots in accordance with the allotment, some of them, 
by agreement with the committee, had other lands granted in lieu 
of their rights in the Stinted pasture, so thai when in 1684-5 the 
remainder of the common was allotted, some lands east of Central 
street seem to have been included. 

The division of the remainder of the common was made in 
March, 1685, and has the following record: — 

"Charles Towne, 1085. A record of the Lands Laid out in 
Charles Towne bounds on this Side Menotamies River (being 


called the Stinted Pasture) Unto the proprietors thereof (Accord- 
ing Unto A Vote of thiers past, when Conveened together March 
Tenth, 16S1-5), which was Effected and performed by their Com- 
mittee (Chosen and Confirmed by the Said proprietors March 
27th, 1G85), who haveing finished the said worke, The Selectmen 
of Said Towne being satisfied therewith, Ordered it, yt each mans 
proprietie in the Said Land According to the platt of Ensigne 
David ffiske the Surveyor (According to Law) be recorded in the 
Towns booke of records, to be their propper Right, and Estate." 

This record shows that a plan was made of this last division ; 
I think no such plan has ever been discovered, yet a description 
of each lot is recorded, and the whole record is much more defi- 
nite than in any of the previous allotments. 

This last division extended as far as Alewife brook; it cov- 
ered ()50 acres of land. These two divisions, or ''Dividents," as 
they were called, included all the territory between Washington 
street, Bow street, Somerville avenue, and Elm street, on the 
south, to Broadway on the north, and from the present Charles- 
town line to the present Nathan Tufts Park, which it included, 
and the land on both sides of Broadway, from Powder 1 [ouse 
square to Alewife brook. 

It is perhaps doubtful whether or not all the lots in these 
divisions could be identified and located at the present day, but 
the greater part of them have been ; one, for instance, which was 
the lot set off to the Church of Charlestown, was on Cross street. 
and remained in its possession for a century or more. Another 
was the Wheeler lot of twelve acres, on which are now the city 
hall, public library, high school buildings, Winter Hill station, 
etc.; and another the Rowe lot, on which the old Tufts house. 
headquarters of the Historical Society, stands; undoubtedly, with 
time and patience, a fairly correct man of these old property divi- 
sions could be made. In these two divisions of 1681 ami 
1G35 the common land was laid out in ranges, running nearly 
north and south, and oi forty rods' width, with rangewa) 


streets between them, eighty rods, or one-quarter of a mile apart, 
the ranges being - sub-divided into lots. The fangeways, though 
spoken of in the record of 1G81 as being twenty-four feet in width, 
are later recorded, with one exception, as being two rods wide, 
and so remained until after Sonierville became a separate town. 

The rangeways east of the Powder House were known by 
numbers from one to eight, and corresponded with the following- 
present streets., viz. : — 

The first rangeway was Franklin street: the second Cross 
and Shawm lit streets, which was laid out Ihrce rods wide, being 
the exception heretofore noticed; it was called "Three Pole 
Lane," and was known by this name within the memory of the 
writer. The third rangeway was Walnut street; the fourth, 
School street; the fifth, Central ; sixth, Lowell, portions of which 
are extinct; seventh, Cedar; and eighth, Willow avenue. 

There were three more rangeways west of Powder House 
square, which were numbered from one to three, all running 
northerlv from Broadway over College hill. 

Rangewav No. 1 came into Broadway about opposite Simp- 
sen avenue, but it is now extinct. Rangeway No. 2 is now Cur- 
tis street, and No, 3 is North street. 

The Stinted pasture did not include any land north of 
Broadway which lay to the eastward of Powder House square; 
the larger part of this land was the 'Ten \ I ills Farm," granted 
to Governor Winthrop in 1 D30. Nor did it seem to include any 
territory south of Washington street and Sonierville avenue. 

The boundaries of the Governor Winthrop estate were well 
defined, but the locations of lands which were granted south of 
the Stinted pasture, and which extended to the Cambridge line, 
are very obscure in the earlier records. Thus has Ik en sketched 
the laying out and beginning of that section of our ci \ which we 
may very appropriately name the Highlands of Some ille, cover- 
ing nearly eleven hundred acres of land, the larger i it of which 
is now our most thickly settled territory. 



I shall not soon forget my first impression of my present 
home as I saw it one pleasant day in September, 1853. We drove 
through Charlestown, turning- off at Cambridge, now Washing- 
ton, street, where stood a large wooden building known as the 
Russell house, an old-fashioned country tavern, where the farmers 
could stop on their way to or from the city for rest or refresh- 
ment. It was afterwards cut into sections and moved to 
Brighton street, making homes for numerous families, and is still 
so occupied. Only a few other buildings or dwelling houses were 
there at that time. On the left was a marsh extending to the 
land owned by the McLean Asylum for the Insane, and beyond 
the Lowell railroad. On the right, I remember the Monroe 
house, with a blacksmith's shop, and on the site of that shop one 
of the Monroe family now lives. The Hadley house at the corner 
of Franklin street, and another near the railroad bridge were the 
only ones in that locality. That bridge, or under it, was danger- 
ous, for it was a hollow, and heavy rains or sudden melting of the 
snow made it a lake, and at times impassable. Horses have been 
drowned there, and people in carriages narrowly escaped death. 

Nearest the bridge was the house owned by Mr. Charles 
Tufts, who in later years gave the land for Tufts College, 
which bears his name. Next to him lived Deacon Benjamin Ran- 
dall, who served the town several years as selectman. His house 
made the corner of a narrow street called Shawmut street, but. 1 
am told, was known to the older people as "Three Pole Lane/' 
and on the other corner was a beautiful garden fronting on 
Washington street, and extending through to Medford street. 
owned by a Mr. Hill. On t lie opposite corner of Nfedford street 
was the Dugan house, standing in a large lot that extended to 
Boston street, and the house still stands, enlarged and improved 


A brick building has been erected in the Medford-street corner, 
with store in the lower story, and is a successful business place. 

Coming up Medford street on the right, by the Hill house, 
was a well-remembered cellar door which sloped inward, and in 
the darkness that prevailed after nightfall, so many people fell 
there, that a petition was presented to the town authorities for a 
lamp, and, after some delay and due. consideration, it was 
granted. From there up Medford street all was dark, and lan- 
terns were a necessity. Gentlemen who were detained in Boston 
evenir gs left their lanterns at the Milk Row station in the morn- 
ing, to light them home by night. 

To rind our new home we were directed to the first street 
on the left, and after driving some distance, we inquired, and 
were told that opening that we had taken for a way into a pas- 
ture, or cowyard, was the place we wanted. The street, so-called, 
was partly dug out, the rest a bank, and on that corner Mr. 
Francis Russell lived, and his house still stands; and above his 
land was a cottage, now occupied by Mrs. Hatch. There was 
one pleasant thing about our anticipated premises, — the quantity 
of flowers around the house, which, we learned, had been the sole 
care of one of the ladies of the family. But the surroundings 
were not inviting, and only that we must change our residence 
reconciled us to settle there for the winter only, as we supposed. 
Putting in a furnace and building a barn for our horse were the 
first things attended to, and trying to improve the bog that was 
dignified by the name of Greenville street was the next thing at- 
tempted, and for years was a discouraging matter. Prospect hill 
was very near us, so near that we could easily converse with 
people on the summit from our driveway. The 'owners sold the 
so-called gravel, otherwise mud, to men who look it away in little 
carts holding two bushels (or a little more), ami this continual 
teaming, especially in wet weather, made il dirty and dangerous 
for a light carriage, and all the repairs put on the street did not 
keep it in good condition, though enough money was expended 
to make it one of the best in the town. 


Till 1ST0 there were no added building's, and about five years 
later, I think, Boston street was opened and a few houses built, 
and, later still, more. We made our own sidewalk, put a lamp 
at the foot of the street, one neighbor helping in this, and felt we 
were getting* into city ways, and were happy. 

The taking of Prospect hill to fill Miller's river gave a large 
tract of land that has been well improved, and the old hill is now 
a place of pleasant residences. 

It is interesting to look back and see how Somerville has 
grown in all these years. I am not sure what the population was 
at that time, but I can tell something of the schools and churches. 
The high school had been built about two years, and T am told 
there was great opposition to it, many thinking it was a useless 
expense for so few pupils. 

There was a wooden schoolhouse on Sycamore street, 
another at the corner of Broadway and Franklin street, another 
on Somerville avenue, and the Prospect Hill, which is still used, 
but is twice its original size. Where Central square now is was 
a low, two-roomed building, one room of which was used for a 
Tjrimary school. It was taken away when the Brastow was built, 
the first year of the war, 1861, 

The Perkins-street church had moved from Mystic avenue, 
or near there, and was the only one in East Somerville. Many 
people of that section who had walked to Charlestown decided 
that it was necessary to have a church near home, and the Frank- 
lin-street church was built, and opened for worship, I think, in 
1855. This was burned by the incendiary's torch about the time 
other churches and school buildings were destroyed in the same 
way, but was soon replaced by the present brick edifice. The 
Unitarian church, which was one of the earliest in town, and the 
Cross-street Universalist were burned at that time. The Spring- 
hill Baptist was formerly a chapel, which is still standing, and 
Methodist services were held in a small hall in Union square, but 
after a time (hey built a wooden church on Webster avenue, 
which is now occupied by the Catholic parochial school, and they 

moved to their present commodious new church in Wesley- 
square. I can only recall three churches when I came here, and 
now we are called the city of churches and schools. 

There seemed in those days so much vacant, unoccupied land 
that it would take ages to cover and improve it, but even now, 
with few exceptions, it has been well utilized, and there are few 
lonely places. West Somerville, now so populous and thriving, 
was a farming locality, with few houses and much land. 

From our second-story windows in those days I could see 
our own team as it turned the corner at Charlestown Neck, and 
as some of the family wended their way to church (Franklin- 
street), we could see them till they passed from Glen to Pearl 

The part of the city near the Fitchburg railroad crossing, 
called by the old settlers "Brick Bottom," might well be called 
Shanty Town, from its miserable houses and its dirty surround- 
ings, and it needed the excitement caused by a hot, unhealthy 
season to remedy the condition of things, and the stagnant pools 
and refuse heaps were filled up and removed by the town authori- 

To-day, we old inhabitants, looking around with pride on 
our beautiful parks and well-kept roads, our lighted streets, fine 
public buildings and residences, wonder if we really lived without 
them in the old days, and, having seen all these improvements 
come and grow, feel more interest and satisfaction in them than 
those who have lived here fewer years. May I say what I believe 
to have been the greatest factor in the growth and well-being of 
our good city? For eighteen years the voters have declared that 
license to sell intoxicating liquors shall not be granted, and the 
saloon and rum shop are things of the past ; and in those years 
our population has increased from twenty to more than sixty 
thousand inhabitants. 

Beautiful for situation, with its seven bills, most of them 
crowned with church or school, is Somerville, our dwelling place. 

January 3, 3900. 




Trie thoroughfare extending from Charlestown, through 
Somerville to Arlington, and now known as Broadway, was for- 
merly the Winter Hill Road, and the name should never have 
been changed. 

In 1842 the buildings on this highway were few, and, with 
four or five exceptions, far between. 

Commencing on the right-hand side at the Charlestown line 
was the Bradbury house, owned, and occupied by Charles Brad- 
bury, — a three-story wooden structure. Next came a brick 
house; then a brick house with wooden addition. Who occu- 
pied these two houses is not remembered. The three bouses are 
still standing. The Stearns house, still standing, but in a 
dilapidated condition, came next. I think it was occupied by 
a member cf the family, Miss Sally Stearns, familiarly known as 
"Aunt Sally." "The Yellow House," as it was called because of 
its color, was the next in order, but was some distance back from 
the road, and on the summit of the hill. It was a part of the 
Austin estate, and was occupied bv several families. 

The convent ruins came next, and beyond was the Torrey 
house, — a small building owned and occupied by Mrs. Mary P. 
Torrey. The last three long since disappeared. The three-story 
brick house which came next, and which is still standing, was 
owned and occupied by Edward Cutter. I do not remember any 
house between the Cutter house and the house at the top of the 
hill, at the fork of the Winter Hill Road, and what is now Main 
street. Previous to this time it had been occupied by Hon. Ed- 
ward Everett. In 1842, or about that time, the house was 

• 20 

owned and occupied by John S. Edgerly. The late Hon. George 
O. Brastow, one of the best-known citizens of Somerville, used 
to call Mr. Edgerly the '"Winter Hill Eagle." The house is still 

The next was a house owned and occupied by Thomas S. 
Woodbury, and was afterwards burnt. I think the next was one 
owned and occupied by John David Bolles. I do not remember 
that there was any house on the westerly slope of the hill. There 
was a three-story wooden house about opposite the Powder 
House, but I do not know who owned it or who lived in it at 
this time. It had been occupied previously by John C. Magonn. 

The one-story Walnut Hill schoolhouse came next. It has 
ceased to be used for school purposes, but whether it is still on 
its old site I do not know. Beyond this was the Russell prop- 
etty. There was an old house on it; further than that I know 
nothing. This brings us to the then West Cambridge, now Ar- 
lington, line at Alewife brook. 

Commencing on the left-hand side at the Charlestown line, 
pasture land of the heirs of Major Timothy Walker had a 
frontage on Broadway to the land and house of Ebenezer F. Cut- 
ter. Near to it and beyond was the house of Fitch Cutter. 
These two houses were long ago replaced by more modern struc- 
tures. On what is now Franklin street, then a rangeway, stood 
a small, one-story schoolhouse, which was afterwards removed 
to Winter Hill, and is still standing. 

At the corners of Cross street, then a rangeway, and called 
Three-Pole lane, stood two small wooden houses owned and oc- 
cupied by members of the Tufts family. The houses were taken 
down long ago. Beyond this there was no building till Walnut 
street, — another rangeway, — was crossed. On the upper corner 
was a blacksmith shop, not now standing. Then came two 
houses owned, and one of them occupied at about this time, by 
Albert Kenneson. They are still standing. The next was the 
homestead of Joseph Adams, now owned and occupied by myself. 


It was to this house that the Superior, the nuns, and the scholars 
of the Ursuline convent fled for protection on the nig] it that the 
building was destroyed by a mob, — August 11, 1834. The 
rioters came to the house twice in search of the Superior, again.-*, 
whom their vengeance was especially directed, because of some 
incautious remarks said to have been made by her. A little de- 
ception was used by Mr. Adams, and the mob went further in 
pursuit of their intended victim. 

The next house was the house owned and occupied by the 
Mitchells, and is still standing. A house owned and occupied by 
Gardner King stood on the corner of Marshall street. It wa 
removed to make room for the Odd Fellows' building. A house 
owned and occupied by Asa Tufts, on the first corner of stil 
another rangeway — now School street — came next. 

Farther up the hill, and near, if not on, the site of the house 
of Mr. Whitcomb, stood the Chester Adams house. It had bee i 
occupied by him, but at this time (184.2) was owned and occupied 
by William Tufts, a farmer. Chester Adams was the father of 
the late Hon. James Adams, a prominent and much-respected 
citizen of Charlestown. Wyzeman Marshall, a well-known actor 
in his day, lived with Mr. Tufts in this house. The house is now 
located in the rear of Dr. Willis' residence, on the opposite side 
of Broadway. A house, new at that time, came next, owned and 
occupied by J. P. Staniels. Four years later it was owned and 
occupied by Charles Forster, — as saintly a person as evt i 
walked the earth. His religion'was a reality, and not a pretense 
or a cover. He lived in Charlestown before he came to Somer 
ville. It was related of him at the time by a Charlestown bakei 
thai his bill against Mr. Forster in one year for bread was o\\ ; 
four hundred dollars, not one loaf of which went to his own 
house. Of late years his house has been owned and occupied 
by Mrs. E. R. Sawyer, but has now been removed to the rear. 

One rangeway more, now Central street. On the first cor- 
ner stood a house owned and occupied by Edmund Tufts, — tin 

first treasurer of Somerville, — and his sister, Abby Tufts. The 
house is now a thing of the past. The next house was owned 
and occupied by John C. Magoun, for many years an assessor of 
the town and city of Somerville The house is still standing, 
and is occupied by one of his daughters. Next came the un- 
finished brick house of wSamuel Welch, about which so many ro- 
mantic stories have been told. The next was the Powder House, 
with perhaps a house in front of it. I am not sure. Beyond 
this to Alewife brook I have no recollection. I may have made 
an omission of a house or two, but cannot say where. 

The name of "Winter Hill Road" is passed and gone, and 
in its place only Broadway. It is io be hoped that sometime the 
present name will be abandoned, and the original and more de- 
sirable name of Winter Hill Road be restored. 



Edward Brackett was the son of Thomas O. Brackett, of 
Somerville, Mass. He was a graduate of Harvard College, and 
was la student in the Harvard Law School when he enlisted, in 
April, 1861, in Captain George O. Brastow's company (I), Som- 
erville Light Infantry, of the Fifth regiment, Massachusetts Vol- 
unteers (First Three Months' Volunteers). He was in the skir- 
mish at Wolf's Run Shoals, Va., July 18, 1861, while on the 
march to "Bull Run," Va. Brackett was in this skirmish (with 
the writer of this sketch), and he behaved in most gallant and 
intrepid form. The men in this skirmish composed ten from each 
company, and were in charge of Captain Messer, of the Haver 
hill company. 

This detachment was thrown out on a side road to proteel 
the left flank of the marching column. While the detachment 
was fording the creek — Wolf's Run — we came upon a b< 
the enemy and received their fire, and returned the complimen 
Brackett stood in the middle of the stream, up to his waist in 
and water, with others, and loaded and fired his rifle, until th 
enemy were repulsed, when the detachment retired, and. after 
long night march, overtook the army about midnight of the nin< 
teenth of July. After much fatigue and hunger, we locate! c 
regiment (Fifth Massachusetts) on the top of Centreville ) [eight 
near "Bull Run," or Manassas junction. On the morning - 
July 21, 1861, we started for the battlefield, and were in this 
until afternoon. 

Brackett, throughout this battle, showed great gallantry . 
made himself very conspicuous by his coolness and bravery 
under fire. 


After the battle of Bull Run (Sunday, July 21, 1861), the 
, regiment marched to Washington, and it arrived in- Boston, and 
was there mustered out of service August 1, 1861. 


After his service in the Fifth Massachusetts regiment, which 
ended August 1, 1861, Edward Bracket!, who was full of true 
patriotism, again enlisted, and was appointed first sergeant in 
company D, Tenth Maine Volunteers. This company was 
raised and commanded by Captain George W. West, of Sorner- 
ville, Mass., and of which the writer of this sketch was then the 

, second lieutenant. 

Ibis regiment went to Baltimore, Md., and was placed in the 
"Railroad Brigade," middle department, under Major-General 
John A. Dix, and subsequently under Major-General John E. 
Wool, U. S. A. 

This "Railroad Brigade" was under Colonel Dixon S. Miles, 
U. S. A., whose headquarters were at Relay house, nine miles 
from Baltimore, on the main stem of the Baltimore & Ohio rail- 
road, at the junction of the Washington branch and the viaduct 
over the Patapsco river. General Miles was killed September 15, 
1862, at Harper's Ferry, Va. Sergeant Brackett was in many 
engagements with the regiment in this brigade, and again proved 
himself a brave and intrepid soldier. Brackett was also in many 
engagements in the Shenandoah valley, and in August, 1862, 
this regiment passed up the valley, and was in the battle of Cedar 
Mountain, Va., and in the second Bull Run light, August, 1862, 

r and was attached to General Pope's army K and with Major- 
General McClellan's army in the "Forced March" to Maryland 
to intercept Lee's army and relieve Harper's Ferry, which was 
besieged by Major-General A. P. Hill's corps. The surrender 
of Harper's Ferry took place September 15. L862, while the battle 
of South Mountain was going on. The Tenth Maine regiment 
was in the battle of Antietam September 17, 1862, and Edward 


Brackett was in command of company D. Captain West having 
been made major of the Seventeenth Maine regiment, First Lieu- 
tenant Beardsley was made captain, and Lieutenant Binney being 
on detached service on staff duties at Harper's Ferry, and Captain 
Beardsley having been taken prisoner at Cedar Mountain, left 
Brackett in command of the company. Lieutenant Edward 
Brackett was killed at the battle of Antietam September 17, 1862. 
Brackett was a most efficient, brave, and intrepid soldier and 
officer, and a most courteous gentleman. Had he lived, his pro- 
motion would have been rapid. 



Abbreviations — b. stands for "business in Boston," h. for "house," n. for 
"near," cor. for "corner of," op. for "opposite." The word street will be 
omitted as superfluous. 


Hewes, James F., h. Medford Turnpike. 

Harmon, Ebenezer S., b. spring maker, h. Walnut. 

Henderson, Franklin, repairs railroad, h. Central. 

Hersey, David R., b. accountant, h. Church. 

Higgins, William, constable, h. Broadway. 

Hill, Ivers, provision dealer, h. Cambridge. 

Hill, James, Jr., F. H. market, h. corner Cambridge and Medford. 

Hills, William H., carpenter, h. Dane. 

Hitchins, Augustus, yeoman, h. Cambridge. 

Hinds, Lewis H., McLean Asylum. 

Hodgden, Phineas S., carpenter, Laurel. 

Hodgden, L., carpenter, h. Laurel. 

Holton, Leonard, b. truckman, h. Broadway. 

Holt, Chauncey, brickmaker, h. Broadway. 

Holt, Charles, b. auctioneer, h. Franklin. 

Llolbrook, George, b. accountant, h. Broadway. , 

Holt, John, b. silversmith, h. Prospect hill. 

Plook, Edwin, b. wheelwright, h. Milk. 

Hook, George G., b. organ builder, h. Central. 

Hoar, James, laborer, h. Leland. 

Horton, Reuben, trunk-maker, h. Franklin, 

Hoyt, John, brickmaker, h. Medford. 

Howard, Mr., blacksmith, h. near L. R . 

Homer, Mary B., widow, h. Cambridge. 


Howard, Mr., blacksmith, h. near Asylum. 

Hopps, Charles, painter, h. Spring. 

Hudson, Samuel, provision dealer, h. Beacon. 

Hudson, Charles H., attorney at law, boards with S. Hudson. 

Hunnewell, John, clerk, h. Medford. 

Huston, John, h. Bond from Derby. 

Ireland, Mrs. Grace, widow, h. Milk. 

Ireland, John, h. Milk. 

Ireland, Miss Sally, boards at Orr N. Town's. 

Jaques, Samuel, h. Ten Hills farm. 

Jaques, Samuel, Jr., h. Ten Hills farm. 

Jaques, George, b. accountant, h. Ten Hills. 

James, William, b. horse collar maker, h. Beacon. 

James, William, shipbuilder, h. Mount Vernon. 

Jennings, Josiah, b. barber, li. Linwood. 

Johnson, Simon, b. dyer, li. Milk. 

Johnson, Philip, b. trader, Central, boards at C. Adams'. 

Johnson, David, carpenter, h. Snow hill. 

Jordan, Charles, b. dry goods, h. Joy. 

Kelley, John, laborer, h. Medford. 

Kelley, Jeremiah, b. accountant, h. Tufts. 

Kennison, Albert, brickmaker, h. Broadway. 

Kendall, George S., painter, h. Cambridge. 

Kendrick, Elbridge G., brickmaker, h. Franklin. 

Kidder, Andrew B., b. printer, h. Cambridge. 

Kimball, Jesse, brickmaker, h. Broadway, 

Kingman, Caleb, pump-maker, h. Cambridge. 

Kinsley, Zebediah, brickmaker, h. Linwood. 

Kinsley, Zebediah, Jr., brickmaker, h. Linwood. 

Kinsley, Henry, brickmaker, li, Linwood. 

M'cAdam, Margaret, dressmaker, near Prescott school. 

Nichols, widow, Waity G., li. Beacon. 

Noble, Simon N., b. stove dealer, h. Lime. 

Noble, John TL, b. dealer in furniture, h. Mt. Vernon. 


Norris, Thomas F., b. editor of Oliver Branch, Beech. 

Olmstead, David, Mt. Vernon. 

Orcutt, Levi, carpenter, h. Milk. 

Orcutt, Levi, Jr., carpenter, Bow. 

O'Neil, Patrick, teamster, h. Cambridge. 

O'Bnen, Mr., charcoal dealer, h. Med ford. 

Oliver, Francis, victualler, h. Franklin. 

Orvis, Abraham, provision dealer, h. Prospect. 

Page, Philip C, nail-maker, h. Franklin. 

Palmer, Theodore, laborer, h. Joy farm. 

Page, David, merchant, h. Tapley place. 

Patrick, James, laborer. 

Paul, Temple, carpenter, h. Ml. Vernon. 

Peduzzi, Peter, h. Joy. 

Pepper, Edward, laborer, h. near bleacher v. 

Pepper, Patrick, bleach ery. 

Pedrick, William, machinist, h. Broadway. 

Perkins, Herald, b. hatter, h. Joy. 

Perkins, Thomas, tollman, Medford turnpike. 

Phillips, John L., b. custom house, Summer. 

Pierce, Joseph, Jr., carpenter, Milk. 

Pierce, Joseph, carpenter, h. Milk. 

Plympton, Moses, b. custom house, h. Cambridge. 

Pope, Augustus R., clergyman, cor. Central and Summer. 

Pool, George W., ship master, h. Broadway, 

Pond, William, painter, h. Spring. 

Poor, John R., b. mustard manufacturer, h. Mt. Vernon. 

Pollard, Asa P., currier, h. Mt. Pleasant. 

Poor, Samuel, shoe dealer, h. Mt. Pleasant. 

Pollard, Warren, stone dealer, h. Central. 

Putnam, Charles I , physician, Milk. 

Prescott, Dana S., h. Perkins. 

Priest, John F., milk dealer, h. Broadway. 

Prescott, Solomon D., b. clerk, h. Franklin. 


Prescott, Gustavus G., merchant, Perkins. 

Prescott, Calvin S., b. merchant, h. Pearl. 

Pratt, Daniel, b. dry goods dealer, h. Elm. 

Purdy, Edward C, b. editor, h. Chestnut. 

Pulsifer, George, McLean asylum. 

Quinn, Michael, h. Medford. 

Rand, Thomas, yeoman, h. Milk. 

Rand, William, yeoman, h. cor. Milk and Central. 

Raymond, Francis L., dry goods, h. Milk. 

Ramsden, William, bleachery. 

Randall, Henry, carpenter, h. Cambridge. 

Ramsay, Thomas, laborer, h. Milk. 

Randall, Ivory S., laborer, h. Cambridge. 

Reef, Daniel, laborer, h. near bleachery. 

Kinsley, Nathan, brickmaker, h. Elm. 

Knowlton, Ira. brickmaker, h. Bond. 

Lavy, Patrick, bleachery. 

Leigh, Edwin, physician, h. Spring hill. 

Littlefield, Samuel, brickmaker, h. Derby. 

Littlefield, Mrs. Martha, h. Cambridge. 

Leland, Caleb W., h. Elm. 

Leland, Warren S., yeoman, h. Elm. 

Leland, Thomas J., b. provision dealer, h. Elm. 

Leland, John, b. carriage maker, h. Cambridge. . 

Leonard, F. E., b. hardware, h. Bow. . 

Lillie, Thomas, b. carriage-smith, Spring hill. 

Littlefield, Rufus, mason, h. Prospect. 

Learned, Gearfield, b. publisher, h. Sycamore. 

Lane, Josiah, h. near Beacon. 

Little, Nicholas, h. Beech. 

Littlefield, Joshua, laborer, h. Garden court. 

Locke, Irene, teacher, boards with D. 1 .. V rcrtt Bow; 

Marshall, Chester, h. near Milk 

Mackintire, James, groceries, h. Mt. Pleasant. 


Magoun, John C, yeoman, Broadway. 

Magoun, John A., painter, Broadway. 

Mann, Eben, marble worker, h. Milk. 

Marrett. D. A., grocer, h. Bow. 

Marsh, William, carpenter, h. Joy. 

Marshall, Wizeman, tragedian, h. Hamlet. 

McDermot, Daniel, watchman, bleachery, h. Milk. 

Merrill, Lewis F. s lard trier, h. Medford. 

Merrill, Asa, teamster, h. Medford. 

Middleton, Rev. Mr., h. Dane. 

Miller, Charles, b. clothing dealer, h. Beacon. 

Miller, James, provision dealer, h. Beacon. 

Miller, William, plumber, h. Bow. 

Miller, Joseph, h. Medford. 

Miller, James N., yeoman, h. Broadway. 

Miller, David, carpenter, h. Russell. 

Mills, Elisha, dealer in empty casks, h. Lime. 

Mills, James L., cooper, h. Lime. 

Metcalf, Simeon M., h. near Cambridge, 

Moore, Hugh, constable and collector, h. Walnut. 

Moore, Abraham M., yeoman, h. front of Walnut. 

Mountfort, Nathaniel, cooper, h. Lime. 

Moie, Peter, laborer, h. Cambridge. 

Montague, Robert, laborer, h. Beacon. 

Morrison, Nathaniel P., yeoman, h. Broadway., 

Moulton, Ira, carpenter, h. Sycamore. 

Murphy, Patrick, laborer, h. Garden court. 

Murray, Richard, h. near asylum. 

Mumoe, Edwin, Jr., b. grain dealer, h. Walnut. 

Munroe, Charles, h. Medford. 

MmrGe, William, wheelwright, h. Cambridge. 

Mrnroe, Benjamin S., b. accountant, h. Prospect hi 

Muer, James, McLean asylum. 

Simmons, Thomas, h. Elm. 


Slade, William FL, b. clothing dealer, h. Summer. 

Smith, John K., teamster, h. Broadway. 

Smith, Amasa G., b. surveyor of lumber, h. Linden. 

Smith, Dennis, b. stair builder, h. Elm, 

Smith, D wight, b. broom dealer, h. Bow. 

Smith, William A., depot master, h. Franklin. 

Smith, Orlando, laborer, bleachery. 

Snaith, I\lrs., widow, h. Elm. 

Snow, Harvey, carpenter, h. Cherry. 

Snow, Henry A., agent for bleachery. 

Somes, John G., carpenter, h. Florence. 

Springer, J. S., b. dry goods, h. Sullivan. 

Spring, Isaac S , yeoman, h. Milk. 

Spring, Samuel C., 1). merchant, h. Milk. 

Spear, Albert (Spear and Downing), omnibus, h. Franklin. 

Spalding, Ebenezer, brickmaker, h. Broadway. 

Stone, P. A., h. Lime. 

Stearns, Miss Sarah, h. Broadway. 

Stewart, Eri W., carpenter, h. Beacon. 

Stone, Daniel, boards at L. Arnold's, Cambridge. 

Stone, Jonathan, carriage manufacturer, h. Cambridge. 

Stone, Nathaniel, yeoman, h. Milk. 

Stone, Mrs. Sarah, widow, h. cor. Milk and Central. 

Straw, Love, carpenter, h, Summer. 

Stetson, Lebbeus, b. clothing dealer, h. Chestnut. 

Stodder, John, b. machinist, h. Garden court. 

Stearns, James W., passage from Broadway to Elm. 

Stearns, Thomas, passage from Broadway to Elm. 

Stewart, Robert, provision dealer, h.» Beacon. 

Stockbridge, William, b. auctioneer, h. Franklin. 

Stevens, Edward L., b. accountant, h. Prospect hill. 

Styles, George, b. stereotype founder, h. Linden. 

Sweeney, Michael, laborer, h. Med ford. 

Swett, Mrs. Sarah, h. Cambridge. 


Sullivan, John, laborer, h. Central. 

Sullivan, Daniel, laborer, bleachery. 

Sumner, Samuel R., carpenter, h. near Lowell. 

Sullivan, John, near depot, h. Milk. 

Taggard, John, b. iron dealer, Mt. Pleasant. 

Teel, Thomas, yeoman, h. Broadway. 

Teel, Samuel, yeoman, Broadway. 

Tenant, John, teamster, house of Mrs. Torrey, Broadway.. 

Tenney, Daniel B., carpenter, h. Medford turnpike. 

Tenney, Robert G., brickmaker, h. Medford turnpike. 

Tenney, John C, carpenter, h. Medford turnpike. 

Tenney, Albert G., b. custom house, h. Cambridge. 

Terry, Patrick, stone worker, Garden court. 

Thompson, Clark, provision dealer, h. Broadway. 

Thompson, Edward C, conductor, h. Pearl. 

Thompson, Samuel, b. flour inspector, h. Milk. 

Thorp, Ira, yeoman, h. Walnut. 

Thrasher, Benjamin, brickmaker, h. Broadway. 

Tilson, Apollos, b. furnishing store, h. Granville. 

Torrey, Mrs. Mary P., widow, h. Broadway. 

Randall, Benjamin, 2nd, carpenter, Cambridge. 

Reed, Daniel, b. grocer, h. Milk. 

Ricker, Edward, b. blacksmith, li. Milk. 

Ricker, Benjamin F., mason, h. cor. Cambridge and Milk. 

Ring, Gardner T.. brickmaker, h. !> road way. 

Riley, James, gardener, h. Beacon. 

Roberts, Nichols P., b. house and ship joiner, h. Lime. 

Robinson, Enoch, b. machinist, h. Central. 

Robinson, George W., b. machinist and founder, h. Summer. 

Robinson, Ezra B., b. machinist, h. Spring Hill st. 

Rogers, H. R., b. liquor dealer, h. Beech. 

Rogers, Artemas, b, varnish dealer, h. Beech. 

Rogers, Samuel F., h. cor. Beech. 

Robbins, David C, laborer, h. near M. R. R. 


Rcbbins, George F., b. leather dealer, h. Milk. 

Robertson, Robert, h. vicinity of asylum. 

Rtiney, Miss Mary, h. Cross. 

Rnney, James, potter, h. Medford. 

Rnney, John, potter, h. Cross. 

Runey, George S., civil engineer, h. Cross. 

Runey, Horace, wheelwright, h. Cross. 

Russell, William A., yeoman, h. Broadway. 

Russell, Levi, yeoman, h. Broadway. 

Russell, Philemon R., yeoman, h. Russell. 

Russell, Mrs. Ann, widow, h. Broadway. 

Russell, John, b. grocer, h. Medford. 

Russell, Francis, b. merchant, h. Medford. 

Russell, Aaron W., mason, h. Bow. 

Russell, David, grain dealer, h. Medford. 

Sargent, Aaron, Jr., b. accountant, h. Franklin. 

Sawtell, Benjamin, grocer, h. Elm. 

Saxton, M. F., b. bookseller, h. Mt. Pleasant. 

Sauren, Thomas J., varnish dealer, near L. R. R. 

Sanborn, David A., h. Cambridge. 

Sanborn, David A., Jr., carpenter, h. Prospect. 

Sanborn, Albert & George A., grocers, Cambridge. 

Sanborn, Robert, yeoman, h. Bow. 

Sanborn, Joseph, brickmaker, h. Prospect. 

Sanborn, Joseph P., brickmaker,, Prospect. 

Scott, James, b. F. H. market, h. Linden. 

Scott, Seth B., h. Mt. Pleasant. 

Sears, Joshua, b. merchant, boards at S. Trull's, Church. 

Shattuck, John, teamster, h, Franklfn. 

Shattuck, William, b. broker, h. Church. 

Shelvin, Terence, h. Milk. 

Shepard, Isaac P., b. teacher, h. Prospect hill. 

Shaw, John, b. silversmith, h, Dane. 

Shute, Benjamin, b. ship carpenter, h. Medford. 


Shute, James, brickmaker, h. Broadway. 

Sherwin, A. W., b. furniture dealer, h. Franklin. 

Shute, James M., b. type founder, h. No. 3 Chestnut. 

Simonds, Elizabeth H., h. Beacon. 

Simmons, Ambrose B., b. F. If. market, h. Linden. 

Simmons, James E., horse dealer, h. Milk. 

Simpson, Jesse, yeoman, h. Broadway. 

Todd, Jehiel, clerk, h. Garden court. 

Topliff, Charles, Baptist clergyman, Ml. Pleasant. 

Town, Orr N., horticulturalist, h. Cambridge. 

Tower, Charles B., b. attorney, h. Florence. 

Towle, Ebenezer, victualler, h. Porter. 

Towsend, Henry, bookkeeper, h. Linden. 

Trull, Samuel, b. merchant, h. Church. 

Trowbridge, Mrs. Caroline, widow, h. Cross. 

Trefren, Jonas, carpenter, h. Snow hill. 

Tufts, Isaac, yeoman, h. Elm. , 

Tufts, Edmund, printer, office Winter hill, Broadway. 

Tufts, George, yeoman, h. Elm. 

Tufts, Timothy, steam-brick manufacturer, h. Elm. 

Tufts, Charles, h. Cambridge. 

Tufts, Nathan, h. cor. Cambridge and Medford. 

Tufts, Nathan, Jr., grain dealer, h. Broadway. 

Tufts, Oliver, yeoman, h. Medford. 

Tui'ts, Miss Abby, h. Winter hill. 

Tufts, Caroline, teacher, boards with C. Adams, Central. 

Tufts, James, at Oliver Tufts'. 

Tufts, Francis, boards with Nathan Tufts, cor. Cam. & Med. 

Tufts, William A., yeoman, h. Broadway. 

Tufts, John A., at Oliver Tufts'. 

Tuttle, James S., carpenter, h. Cambridge. 

Turtle, Isaiah, carpenter, h. Cambridge. 

Twombly, Joseph Q., painter, h. Cambridge 

Twist, Reuben, musician, h. Milk. 


Tyler, Columbus, steward, McLean asylum. 
Underwood, Mrs. Hannah, widow, h. Cambridge. 
Vinal, Robert, town treasurer, h. Bow. 
Vinal, Robert A., b. grain dealer, h. Walnut. 
Vinal, Quincy A., b. grain dealer, h. Walnut. 
Vincent, George, b, F. H. market, h. Leland. 
Wakefield, James, brickmaker, h. Derby. 
Ware, John S., b. commission merchant, h. Prospect. 
Warden, William, potter, h. Cross. 

Walker, Samuel, tailor, h. on street leading from Prospect school, 
Watson, John, bleachery. 
"Wiggin, James M., carpenter, h. Milk. 
Wason, James, provision dealer, h. Cambridge. 
Waugh, Chandler, teamster at bleachery. 
Washburn, David, brickmaker, h. Derby. 
Welch, Abram, surveyor of roads, h. near Milk. 
Webster, Daniel C, engineer, h. leads from Beacon. 
West, Henry N., lumber merchant, h. Summer. 
Weston, Israel A., on railroad, h. Medford. 
W r ells, William, h, Medford. 
Wellington, Henry S., yeoman, h. Broadway. 
White, John, b. harness maker, h. Garden court. 
White, William F., h. Linden. 
White, Artemas, dealer in real estate, h. Elm. 
White, William A., b. machinist, h. 'Cherry. 
Wheeler, George W., carpenter, h. Central. 
W^hitton, Moses, bookbinder, h. Mt. Vernon. 
Wkitton, John R.. daguerreotype artist. 
Willard, William, b. architect, h. Cross. 
Willard, David D., b. dentist, h. Joy. 
Willard, Samuel L., carpenter, h. Cambridge. 
Willoughby, Samuel R., carpenter, h. Cambridge. 
Willis, Samuel B„ b. liquor dealer, h. Myrtle. 
"Willoughby, William, carpenter, h. Central. 


Wild, Charles D., express wagon, h. Medford turnpike. 

Wilson, Nathan, carpenter, h. Cottage place. 

Wood, Edward D., parcel business, h. Mt. Vernon. 

Woodbury, Thomas, painter, h. Broadway. 

Woodbury, Thomas S., b. painter, h. Broadway. 

Woodbury, William C, paperhanger, h. Broadway. 

Woodbury, Sullivan, painter, at T. Woodbury's, Broadway. 

Woodward, Elisha G., b. grocer, h. near Milk. 

Woodward, Benjamin, b. upholsterer, h. Leland. 

Wood worth, Charles, grocer, East Cam I nidge, h. near asylum. 

Worthen, Daniel, b. distiller, h. Mt. Pleasant. 

Wyatt, George W.. brickmaker, h. Beacon. 

Wyeth, Noah, sash maker, h. leads from Beacon. 

Wright, Thomas, b. tin-plate worker, h. Cross. 

Ycung, Thomas, gardener, h. Garden court. 

Young, Levi, carpenter, h. Joy. 


Bryant, William T., carpenter, h. Broadway. 

Hanson, John B„ b. merchant, h. Snow hill. 

Hawkins, C. C, employed on railroad, h. Garden court. 

Mitchell, widow of Nathaniel, h. Broadway. 

Sanborn, Daniel, civil engineer, at David A. Sanborn's, Cam. 


8 City Hall Avenue, Boston 

Roses, Carnations, and a large assortment of season- 
able flowers always on hand. 

Decorating, and all kinds of Design work, at short 
notice. Prices reasonable 

Telephone No. 3779-4 Alain 

E. F. HTfKS — 

^ CATERER <sr 

3 Waverley House, City Sq., Charlestown. 

^ Ice Cream ** 

Of the very Finest Quality # cut and put up in 
Boxes, a specialty for Fairs and Churches at 
special rates. 

Prices sent promptly on application. 

Telephone 209, Charlestown. 

Compliments of 

Edward Q lines 




The Work of Five Years 5 

Ten Hills Farm — Alida G. Sollers ... 9 


Edwin C. Bennett ... 22 

Index . 34 



Somerville Historical Society 


19 Central Street, Somerville, Mass. 

Subscription Price, One Dollar a Year, postpaid. 
Single copies, 25 cents. 

For sale at the Society's Rooms or by ^lembers of the Publication Commits 


Mrs. Barbara C.alpin, Chairman 
John F, Ayer, ex-qffido Sara A. Stone 

Sam Walter Foss Nklbon II. Gko\ 

Frank M. Hawks Charles I. Shkpard 

Officers of Someruillc Historical Society, 


President John F. Ayer. 

First Vice-President, Luther B. Pillsbury. 

Second Vice-President, Levi L. Hawes. 

Third Vice-President ■ . . Seth Mason. 

Recording Secretary, . Florence E. Carr. 

Corresponding Secretary Mrs. V. E. Ayer. 

Treasurer, . Oliver Bacon. 

Librarian and Curator, . . Alfred M. Cutler. 


Charles D. Elliot, L. Roger Wentworth, Anna P. Vinal. 

historic Sites. 

J. 0. Hayden, Chairman, Charles D. Elliot, 

Dr. E. C. Booth. 

essays ana Addresses. 

L. B. Pillsbury, Chairman, Anna P. Vinal, 

John F. Ayer, Lizzie F. Wait, 

Charles D. Elliot, Mrs. V. E. Ayer. 

Library and Cabinet. 

Alfred M. Cutler, Chairman, L. P. Sanborn, 

Levi L. Hawes, Mrs. H. E. Heald. 


B. B. D. Bourne, Chairman, Chas. W. Colman. 

(With one other to be chosen by the committee.) 

Press and Clippings. 

Anna P. Vinal, Chairman, Mary A. Haley, 

M. Agnes Hunt, Lucy M. Stone, 

Marion Knapp. 


Mrs. Barbara Galpin, Chairman, Sara A. Stone, 

Sam Walter Foss, Nelson H. Grover, 

Frank M. Hawes, Chp.rles I. Shepard. 


Seth Mason, Chairman, Mrs. E. S. Hayes, 

Mrs. L. B. Pillsbury, Miss E. A. Waters, 

Mrs. H. E. Heald. 

military Records. 

Col. E. C. Bennett, Chairman, John H. Dusseault, 

Levi L. Hawes. 


The President, The First Vice-Preaident, The Treasurer. 




Voi-. I. JANUARY, t903. No. 4 


The Somerville Historical Society feels gratified both with 
the amount and quality of the work done during the past five 
years. It takes pleasure in herewith enumerating the paper., 
read and the talks given during the several years from 1899- 
1903. Many of these papers will prove of great historical value, 
and will furnish one of the principal sources from which the 
iuture local historian will draw his material. The talks, too, that 
have been given from time to time have been exceedingly inter- 
esting and valuable, and the neighborhood sketches, as bits of 
local history, will certainly furnish data of permanent worth. 

1899: February 16, "The Stinted Common" (a term applied 
to a large area of Somerville in the early days),. Charles D. 
Elliot; March 2, "Early History of the Tufts House," L. Roger 
Wentworth ; "Reminiscences of Domestic Life in the Tufts 
House," Mrs. Helen E. Heald, Mrs. E. A. Maynard; March 16, 
"Genealogical Records," Frederick W. Parker; "A Paper on 
Genealogy," Charles Carroll Dawson, read by Howard Dawson ; 
March 30, "An Evening with Sam Walter Foss" ; April 13, "An 
Address Commemorative of the Battle of Lexington," Rev. C. 
A. Staples, Lexington; April 27, "Schools of Somerville in the 
Olden Time," Mary A. Haley; "The Teaching of Local History 
In Our Schools," John S. Emerson. 

1899-1900: November 15, "The Old Middlesex Canal," L. 
L. Dame, Medford ; December 6, "John Mallett," Florence E. 
Garr; December 20, "History of Tufts College," President E. H. 
Capen; "The Possibilities of the Public Library," Sam Walter 
Foss; January 3, "Somerville as I Have Known It," Mrs 
Amelia Wood: January 17, "Four Satirists of the Revolution," 
Howard Dawson; "History of Journalism in Somerville," Bar- 
bara Galpin; January 31, "Battlefields of the Revolution," El 

bridge S. Brooks; February 14, "Reminiscences of Army Life 
in '01 -'64," Elias H. Marston ; "Work of the Engineer Corps in 
the Army of the Potomac/' Darwin C. Pavey ; February 28, 
"Somerville Soldiers in the Rebellion," Colonel Edwin C. Ben- 
nett; "Some Phases of Woman's National Work/' Mary E. 
Elliot; March 14, "Ballads of the Revolution," Frank M. Hawes ; 
readings, Emma Prichard Hadiey; March 28, "Governor Win- 
throp and His Mansion on the Mistick," Charles D. Elliot; 
April 11, banquet; April 25, "Colonial Architecture/' George F. 
Loring; May 8, "Curiosities of Colonial Law/' Thomas F. 
O'Malley; May 22, "The Tufts Family/' Dr. Edward C. Booth. 
1900-1901: December 5, reading from and discussion of 
"Neighborhood Sketches/' furnished the Society by old resi- 
dents ; December 19, "History of Ten Hills Farm, with Anec- . 
dotes and Reminiscences," Mrs. Alida G. Sollers (born Jaques) ; 
January 2, "With Grant at the Battle of the Wilderness," Colonel 
Elijah Walker; January 16, "An Incident of Anti-Slavery Times 
in Syracuse, N. Y.," by Charles Carroll Dawson, of Toledo, O., 
(corresponding member of Somerville Historical Society), read 
by Floward Dawson ; January 30, "The Old Royal House and 
Farm," J. H. Hooper, President Medford Historical Society; 
February 4, stated meeting of the Society ; February 13, "Wil- 
liam Pierce, Captain of Ships 'Ann/ 'Mayflower/ and 'Lion,'" 
George E. Littlefield ; February 27, "Peter Faneuil and His 
Gift," Abram English Brown, President Bedford Historical So- 
ciety; March 13, "The Old Medford Turnpike, with Glimpses of 
the Brickmakers," John F. Ayer; March 27, "The Ursuline 
Convent, Mt. Benedict," President Charles D. Elliot. 

1901-1902: November 11, "Five Years in New Mexico," 
Colonel E. C. Bennett; November £5, "Klizur Wright— the 
Fells," Miss Ellen M. Wright, Medford; December 2, business 
meeting; December 9, "Historic Trees in and About Boston," 
Miss Sara A. Stone; December 23, "With the Army of the Poto- 
mac, 1864," George B. Clark; January 13, "What Historic Com- 
siderations Dead to," Mrs. M. D. Frazar; January 27, "Minor 

Causes of the Revolution," Walter A. Ladd; February 10, 
"Somerville Fire Department and Somerville Fires," J. R. Hop- 
kins; February 24, "Old-Time School Books," Frank M. Hawes ; 
March 10, "Department of the Gulf," Levi L. Hawes; March 24, 
''Recollections of Somerville," John R. Poor, Boston. 

1902-1903: November 13, "Middlesex Canal," Herbert P. 
Yeaton, Chillieothe, ()., (read by Miss Sara A. Stone); Novem- 
ber 20, "Separation of Church and State in Massachusetts," 
Charles W. Ludden, Medford ; December 18, "Early Schools of 
Somerville," Frank M. Hawes; January 8, "Neighborhood 
Sketch," Quincy A. Vinal; "Reminiscences," Timothy Tufts; 
January 29, "Literary Men and Women of Somerville," Profes- 
sor D. L. Maulsby ; February 19, "Reminiscences of Old 
Charlestown," Hon. S. Z. Bowman ; March 12, "Four Score and 
Eight— Old Time Memories," Nathan L. Pennock. 



It will be necessary, in writing a history of Ten Hills Farm, 
Somerville, Mass., to go back to 1588. On June 12 of that year, 
there was born in Groton, Suffolk County, Eng., John Winthrop, 
who, with others, sailed for New England in the bark Arabella. 
This was in 1630, when he was in his forty-third year. 

Winthrop had the original charter of Massachusetts Bay 
Colony, and was vested with the title of "Governor." He landed 
at Salem June 17, and on June 18 sailed up the Mystic river, 
stopping at Fort Maverick, Noddle's Island, now East Boston ; 
thence he went to Charlestown, where he built a house. 

Sometime in 1631, probably in the early spring, Governoi 
Winthrop built a farmhouse on the right bank of the Mysti< 
river, about three miles from the site of the present State House-. 
This he used as a summer residence, Charlestown, and later Bos- 
ton, being his winter home, in which latter place the Green, the 
governor's town house, included the land owned by the Old 
South church, Washington street, the house being about oppo- 
site to School street. 

It is recorded that the first vessel ever built in New England 
was launched by Winthrop at his summer home on the Mystic. 
The keel was laid on July 4, 1631, and in October she spread her 
sails. This vessel he named the "Blessing of the Bay," and the 
"ways" from which she was launched were until recently in ex- 
istence near a point where the Edgvvorth (Wellington) bridgv 
now stands. 

On October 6, 1631, the General Court granted to Governor 
Winthrop six hundred acres of land adjoining his estate on the 


Mystic. This, with the original possession, he called "The Ten 
Hills Farm," from the fact that it contained ten hillocks. Prob- 
ably the original farm contained about seven hundred and fifty- 
five acres, or a goodly portion of what is now the city of Somer- 
ville and the city of Medford. 

On the death of Governor Winthrop, March 26, 1649, the 
property fell to his son, John, Jr., then governor of Connecticut, 
by whose executors it was deeded in 1677 to Lieutenant-Colonel 
Lidgett, afterwards to his wife Elizabeth, she deeding half to her 
son Charles in the same year. The Lidgetts and their heirs, 
among whom were the wife and children of Lieutenant- 
Governor Usher, of New Hampshire, deeded a portion of it to 
Sir Isaac Royal in 1731. This was about five hundred and four 
acres, and was in what is now the city of Medford, the remaining 
or Somerville portion, which I will hereafter describe, containing 
about two hundred and fifty-one acres, the Lidgett heirs sold to 
Sir Robert Temple. 

5ir Robert Temple built a new house on the site of the origi-. 
nal Winthrop house. From old papers, and the material used in 
the construction of the "Manor House/' as Temple called it, it 
is evident that the building was designed and executed in Eng- 
land, brought to this country, and set up. 

The sills, which were eighteen inches square, and the hand- 
made clapboards were of English oak; wrought-iron nails were 
used in its construction, and it was brick-lined throughout. 
These facts alone point to its great age and origin. It may be 
well to add here that Mr. George Jaques had at one time a plan 
of this estate dated 1637. 

I will attempt to describe the house as I knew it for it was 
my old home. We will rendezvous at a point where Temple 
street, formerly Derby street, joins Mystic avenue, formerly 
called the Medford Turnpike, and going up the winding drive- 
way, fringed on either side with the fragrant Balm of Gilead, we 
notice on our left the magnificent English lawn, ornamented 
with marble statues mounted on granite pedestals. We arrive at 

a small, but imposing, porch, which fronts the house on the 
erly side, the house itself being a square two-and-a-half-sto 
wooden building-, with an ell. The door to the main entrano: 
hall is. very imposing. The planks of which it is constructed ai e 
two inches thick, laid diagonally solid, instead of being panelh :, 
and the only ornamentation is a ponderous brass knocks 
Entering the main entrance hall, the stairs, broad and of lo 
tread, went up from west to east to a platform two-thirds of ii * 
height, then divided and terminated in two alcove recesses, one 
at each end, with fluted columns and deep windows. On the 
ground floor, on the left, as we enter from the west, was a large 
room called the west parlor. Back of this room were the dining- 
room and kitchen ; on the right of the hall was a small parlor, an i 
back of this a very large room called the east parlor. The sec- 
ond floor, including the ell, contained two large chambers and 
several smaller ones; the garret was divided into rooms, but noi 

In one of these apartments a dark brown spot was sho 
said to be a blood stain, which no amount of washing could re 
move. The legend was to the effect that a free lance, command 
ing a vessel which was part trader and part pirate, was in tin 
habit of mooring his craft at the old wharf. He had a colored 
man who was his body servant. The captain was a frequent 
visitor at the house, and on one of his calls enticed a young girl 
into the garret, and, with the aid of his servant, killed her there. 
It is said that on stormy nights hey spirit could be seen hovering 
over the roof at the window of this room. 

The cellar was a labyrinth of rooms, the wine room being 
reached by a trap door from the pantry, which led from tin 
parlor. The house itself was very lafge and roomy, containing 
beautiful specimens of English and colonial mantels, some being 
elaborately carved and fluted. In one room the fireplace was 
tiled with Scriptural scenes in blue. In the east parlor the I 
piece of the fireplace was brass plate, showing Saint George and 
the Dragon. In the kitchen was a large Dutch oven, and a 


bench for warming plates, decorated with red tile, and another 
Dutch oven was in the dining-room. 

Now, retracing our steps to the beginning of the driveway, 
let us follow its graceful curves till we come to a small, but at- 
tractive, grass plot; the driveway diverging encircled this grass 
plot. We arrive at the large piazza, from which hung for so 
many years the old lantern, and where on hot summer evenings 
our friends were entertained, for it was spacious, and easily ac- 
commodated many guests. From this piazza could be seen the 
chicken yard, and it was here that Colonel Jaques fed his birds 
(spoken of in another part of this paper), and here was the 
grapery, where were cultivated the hothouse Hamburg and 
Whitewater grapes, which always, with other fruits and vege- 
tables, took first prize at the horticultural exhibits. 

In the chicken yard were two ponds, one of fresh and one of 
salt water, almost side by side. Back of the grapery was the 
barn shed and carriage house ; back of these was a hill where, in 
summer, the militia were invited from Charlestown for target 
practice. Colonel Samuel Jaques several times during the sum- 
mer also opened his grounds to his neighbors, who were invited 
to help themselves to the cherries, pears, and other fruits, which 
grew in abundance. You may rest assured they were not slow 
in accepting. 

On the death of Sir Robert Temple, the property came into 
the possession of Robert Temple, jr., who retained it until after 
the Revolutionary war. The wife of Robert Temple, Jr., was 
the daughter of Governor Shirley. Ten Hills was the landing 
place of Gage's night expedition to seize the powder in the 
Province Magazine (Old Powder House) in September, IT* I. 

The vicinity of Ten Hills was that chosen by Mike Martin 
for the robbery of Major Bray. It was near the Temple manor, 
on what is now known as Temple street, that the robbery took 

At the battle of Bunker Hill the Americans dro Eng- 

lish from the house (Sir Robert Temple was a Ro\ list), and 


when the Continentals fell back from Breed's hill, they made a 
stand at Ten Hills, but were obliged to retreat, and the British 
established themselves in the house, using the large east parl< 
as a stable for their horses, while the men and officers occupied 
the rest of the rooms. 

The house was unoccupied for a long time after the Revolu 
tionary war, but finally in J 801 came into possession of General 
Elias Hasket Derby, who for thirteen years kept the place as 
stock farm. The principal noteworthy incidents which occurred 
during Derby's occupancy were the opening of the Medford 
Turnpike in 1804, and of the Middlesex canal, both of which ran 
through the place. The latter, started in 1793, was completed in 
1803, and discontinued in 1843. It was twenty-seven miles long, 
thirty feet in breadth, four feet in depth, and cost nearly a half 
million; its income from tolls amounted to about $25,000 annu- 

From 1814 to 1831 various owners were in possession. 
in 1831 a syndicate of wealthy gentlemen bought the farm, [n 
1832 the estate came into the possession of Colonel Jaques, 

The family of Jaques trace their origin by tradition to Sir 
Rolande de Jacques, who was a feudal baron in Normandy. 
France, in the year $7$. Authentic records are in existence from 
1066, when Rolande de Jacques was one of the knights who at 
tended King William "The Conqueror" at the battle of Hast 
ings (see "Doomsday Book"). , The family continued to be oi 
much consideration in Sussex and Suffolk. Sir Richard Jaques 
as the name was then called, was the head of the family in tht 
county of York. In 1503 Sir Roger Jaques, Lord of Elvington, 
was made mayor of York. Henry Jaques was the first to settle 
in America. He came to Newbury, Mass., in 1640, in compam 
with Benjamin Woodridge. Samuel Jaques. the sixth from 
Henry, and the subject of this sketch, was born Septeml 
1777, in Wilmington, Mass. lie married Harriett Whittemore 
In 1814 Colonel Samuel Jaques came to Charlestown. an 


he was engaged in the West India goods business, being one of 
the firm of Jaques & Stanley. He was also inspector-general of 
hops, and interested largely in the exportation of this article. 

Colonel Jaques, at first major, acquired his title by long ser- 
vice in the militia, and was engaged for a time during the hos- 
tilities of 1812 in the defense of Charlestown bay, and was sta- 
tioned at Chelsea. He was in manners and habits of the type 
of the English country gentleman. 

When a resident of Charlestown, he had, like Craddock's 
men, empaled a deer park. This estate became celebrated as a 
place where things excellent and extraordinary in this line were 
collected and could be seen and obtained. His short-horned 
Durham cattle, his common cattle of good points, and Merino 
sheep could be seen grazing in the pastures, while strange and 
rare birds of beautiful plumage could be seen swimming in a 
little pond in one corner of the estate. At one time buffaloes 
could be seen by passers-by, as the colonel had two or three 
feeding in his pasture. He also had fine dogs, greyhounds and 
spaniels, and a kennel of fox hounds, kept not for ornament, but 
for use; and he often awakened the echoes of the neighboring hills 
in the early morn by his bugle or the cry of his pack. Many a 
resident of Charlestown and Somerville still remembers being 
awakened from his sleep by the sound of the fox hunter's tally-ho. 

Colonel Jaques' Charlestown house is now standing, on 
Washington street, between what is called Washington place and 
Washington square. 

He is particularly worthy of remembrance, for such early 
times, as an horticulturalist, agriculturalist, and breeder; a great 
fondness for animals was his distinguishing trait. He owned the 
famous thoroughbred stallion, beautiful in form and of the rich- 
est bay in color, "Bell-founder," which was of extraordinary 
pedigree, and the best trotting and running horse in the country, 
and the first horse to ever run twenty miles in an hour. This 
horse had one rival only, called "Captain McGowan," who ac- 
complished the feat in 1885. 


At the laying of the corner-stone of Bunker Hill Monument, 
June 17, 1825, Colonel Jaques was the chief marshal. General 
Lafayette was the guest of honor, and was met on the bridge bj 
Colonel Jaques and his aids, and was conducted to the square, 
where a procession was formed. From there he was escorted 
by a regiment of light infantry and a battalion of artillery t<< 
Bunker hill. It might be of interest to mention here that 
George, the son of Colonel Samuel Jaques, was chief marshal on 
the occasion of the semi-centennial anniversary of the laying of 
the corner-stone of Bunker Hill Monument. After the cere- 
mony Colonel Samuel Jaques entertained the distinguished 
guests of the day at his Washington-street house in Charlestown. 
Among these were Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, Marquis D< 
Lafayette, and Rufus Choate. The decanter from which the 
marquis helped himself to wine is still preserved, and in the pos- 
session of Mr. George M. Jaques, of New York. 

In 1832, as above stated, Colonel Jaques removed to the Ten 
Hills Farm, where he at once began the breeding of fancy cattle 
The old gentleman was very fond of relating that he was un- 
decided as to whether he should purchase Noddle's Island, now 
East Boston, or the Ten Hills Farm; both were offered at the 
same price, $30,000. On due consideration, he found that the 
trouble and expense of ferriage to the island was against it. 
When he took possession of the house at Ten Hills Farm, it wa- 
in a deplorable condition, but it was thoroughly renovated, and 
expensive paper put on the walls.. Some idea might be given of 
the size of the rooms from the fact that for each of four rooms it 
took one hundred yards of carpeting one yard in width. The 
holes in the east parlor where the spikes were driven in by the 
Englishmen to tie their horses were' left unfilled, however, and. 
much to the disgust of the family, the colonel always showed 
them to his visitors by poking his fingers through the expensive 
paper into the holes. 

Colonel Jaques wore a distinctive costume; his blue dress 
coat, with brass buttons, blue trousers, buff vest, and his ruffled 


shirt were well known to everybody. Daniel Webster was a life- 
long friend and frequent visitor at Ten Hills Farm, and always 
admired the colonel's dress. One day he asked the names of the 
colonel's tailors, and was told that Messinger & Cahill, of Court 
street, were the men. The great statesman asked to be intro- 
duced to them, and together the pair visited the shop. Mr. 
Webster ordered a suit made precisely like the one worn by 
Colonel Jaques, and, stepping upon the block, was measured for 
it. Before he came down he said he might as well have two 
suits, as he proposed to adopt the style for the future. 

Colonel Jaques laughingly told the tailors that he would not 
be responsible for the payment of the debt. Those who know 
Mr. Webster's peculiarities about money matters will readily 
understand that when the time came tor settlement of the bill, the 
money was not forthcoming, and Colonel jaques had to pay it. 

In addition to his frequent visits to Ten Hills, Mr. Webster 
kept up a correspondence with the colonel, and was constantly 
sending copies of his speeches to him. At the time of Colonel 
Jaques' death, the letters and pamphlets received from noted men 
filled a two and one-half bushel meal bag; but so little was 
thought of their value, present or prospective, that they were 
sold for old waste paper, and here it might be well to say that 
nearly everything of historic value has passed out of the posses- 
sion of our family. 

Among other and frequent visitors at Ten Hills Farm were 
Professor Agassiz, Colonel Thomas Handyeide Perkins, and 
Kirk Boot, who enjoyed a ramble over the vast acres and studied 
the remarkable cattle. On one occasion Agassiz said to the 
colonel, "I don't see how you do it, it is wonderful. How do 
you do it, Colonel Jaques?" And the colonel ans\vered, "Not by 
studying books, professor, not by studying books," and, tapping 
his head, said, "Brains." On another occasion Agassiz was 
studying the clay in which the Ten ilills Farm abounds. 
Colonel Jaques remarked to him. tapping him familiarly on the 
shoulder, "It is all very well for you to sa) what is in the ground, 
for who would dispute you?" 


Colonel Jaques was a generous host ; his family were fi 
of his society, and the children were always expected to be pres- 
ent at the table, both when guests were present and when the 
family were alone, which was seldom, to join in the topics of con- 
versation, or to listen to words which were spoken by his dis- 
tinguished friends. 

Colonel Jaques was of imposing stature, stern in features, 
but very kind, considerate, and just ", when the iron rules with 
which his house was governed were not infringed upon, 
children we were allowed the liberty of the estate and house 
long as no offense was committed, but when once his rules were 
interfered with, we were ranged before him. He was at once 
judge, court, and jury, and in clear-cut, crystallized words im- 
posed our sentence, and for the time being we were ostracised 
from the liberties which we had hitherto enjoyed. He never for- 
got the motto on his crest, "Foy Pour Devoir" (Faithful to 
Duty), and expected all of his family to remember it and abide 

He was always able to interest his visitors in his horses and 
other stock, and in his peculiar views as to their management 
and the possibilities of their improvement. He had peculiar 
ideas about breeding, the result of much study and observation. 
and was very successful in the experiments which he made in 
changing the form and color of animals, thereby increasing their 
value. He claimed he could put his name in white feathers on 
the back of a hen, if he had time enough. He proved part oi his 
theory by crossing a common red and white cow with a pu 
bred Durham short-horned bull, and in thirty-seven years pro- 
duced a pair of twin heifers, which were without a white hair. 
with the characterises of both breeds, but with short horn-. 
These calves were born on the day of his death. He had ' 
given up by the doctors weeks before, but so great was his in- 
terest in the birth of the animals that his strong will kept him 
alive. They were born in the morning; in the afternoon thc\ 
were washed and brought to his room. Each .in turn was iit'u I 


on the bed, and after he had examined them carefully, he laid 
back on his pillow, and in a few hours passed away. Richard S. 
Fay, of Salem, bought them when they were six weeks old, and 
paid six hundred dollars for the pair. 

He also was the importer of the Bremen goose. His 
"Creampot" cows were famous throughout the country. His 
daughter, Harriett Jaques, made butter, before the Legislature, 
from the cream of these cows in thirty seconds, and served it at 
table then and there, the governor being present. 

Captain Kidd was credited with burying treasures on the 
place, and even as late as during the occupancy of Colonel 
Jaques, attempts were made to find the money, and a long 
trench was dug near a big elm tree, whose branches swept the 
house. I remember often being awakened by the sound of spade 
and shovel by men who came to seek for the hidden treasure sup- 
posed to be buried in the knoll on which the house was built. 
Captain Kidd, when pursued, hid himself in what was Sir Robert 
Temple's smoke room, as it was called, built in the chimney 
place, where the servants smoked the hams, This room was 
entered by means of a trap door leading out of a bedroom closet. 

Situated at such a convenient distance from the city, Ten 
Hills, with its broad acres and commodious mansion, drew 
crowds of visitors, and a dozen or fifteen carriages were often 
seen in the yard, and on one memorable Sunday forty-two car- 
riages, all coming by chance, were lined up before the stables. 
In the summer, Sunday always brought a lot of people, and a 
large lunch was always prepared. With so many coming and 
going, you will easily understand that no attempt was made at 
ceremony, but arrivals were first ushered into the dining hall, and 
then told to make themselves at home. The family were some- 
where about the place, either in the house, on the lawn, or on the 
hill. On either side of the house were magnificent elm trees. 
One, in particular, was unusually large, girting more than eleven 
feet, three feet from the ground. The spreading branches 


formed a fine support for a platform at a distance of thirty i 
from the ground, and tea parties were given among the leaves, 
as many as eight or ten participating. 

About the year 1840, an ourang-outang, said to be the first 
ever brought to America, was on exhibition in Boston. It v 
taken sick, and Colonel Jaques was applied to as being an 
authority on animals, to see if the creature could be cured. The 
colonel thought it could, and took charge of it. To accommo- 
date the monkey, he built a two-story structure with two roorn^. 
Upstairs was a chamber, and downstairs was a parlor, 
dumb animal, before or since, ever had such luxurious quarters, 
nor was so much money spent to cure a brute. It took a year to 
restore the ourang-outang to health, and the owner went on his 
way rejoicing. 

The colonel had many valuable fowl, both domestieated and 
in their wild state. His manner of feeding the birds was pecu- 
liar. At a given signal from his whistle, his domestic fowl would 
cluster about him to receive their portion from his hand, and 
after they had finished their meal, another signal was given fr< 
the same whistle, and the wild fowl from miles around would 
congregate and feed upon the colonel's shoulder. 

He also imported and owned the famous stallion 
"Bucephalus" and the mare "Lady Suffolk," who lived to 
thirty-three years old without ever having a harness on her back. 
This mare the colonel had ridden bareback over the place, and 
."Dick," her brother, who was thirty years old at the time of the 
colonel's death, also the pacer, "Paugus," and a running horse, 
"Black Joke." 

When the Ursuline Convent was raided by the mob and 
burnt on August 11, 1834, some of rhe nuns sought refuge at Ten 
Hills. They were pursued by an infuriated mob, who sought to 
kill them. Colonel Jaques met the men on the lawn, and staved 
their progress. He told them he would not allow a hair of tl t 
nuns' heads to be touched so long as he had breath in his be 
His undaunted courage in standing alone against hundred: 


impressed the mob that they retired, leaving the nuns in peace. 
He gave them shelter for several days. 

While driving old Dick from Boston, down what is now 
Temple street, the colonel, who had just presented this street to 
the town, was thrown from his carriage. Dick caught his foot 
in a ring in a corner of a cistern in the street, and, in falling, 
threw Colonel Jaques on his shoulder, dislocating it. He" was 
taken home, put to bed, and lay there for nine months without 
leaving it. He died March 29, 1859, eighty-three years of age. 
This was the first time in his life he was ever ill or had a physi- 

On his death the property was divided between his sons and 
heirs, who for a time engaged in the manufacture of bricks, 
which was one of the chief industries of the place. The property 
was finally sold to Mr. Samuel Oakman and others, the greater 
part, about one hundred and ten acres, being now in the posses- 
sion of the Ames estate, F. O. and j. T. Reed, the Parson estate, 
and the heirs of Mark Fisk (who in 18G9 owned the house), 
and is still called Jaques' Land and Pen Mills Farm, — one of the 
few estates which have retained their name from the original 
grant to the present day. The Temple manor house was torn 
down in 1877. 

To the antiquarian this place is of unusual interest. The 
fact that almost from the first it has been in the possession of 
governors, their heirs and executors, is in itself significant. One 
point, in particular, strikes me as being peculiar, the coincidence 
of the dates '77. In 1677 the property passed from the 
Winthrops, the original owners; in 1777 Colonel Samuel Jaques 
was born ; in 1877 the house was demolished. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. Timothy T. Sawyer, president 
of the Warren Institution of Savings in Charlestown, and Mr. 
George M. Jaques, of New York, I am indebted for many trust- 
worthy facts here presented. 

Mrs. Alida G. Sollers (born Jaques), 
December 19, 1900. Boston, Mass. 


(An extract from the Charlestown Enterprise of July 21, 
written by Mr. Timothy T. Sawyer.) 
In the middle of October, the time of the first frosts, early 
in the morning, when all nature was smiling to usher in the 
queen of morn, the huntsman, Colonel Jaques, and his friends 
began to wind the mellow horn, and there are still many resi- 
dents of Charlestown who can remember when they were awak- 
ened by this stirring music, and saw the colonel and his party 
in hunter's garb, followed by the hounds in pairs, chained to- 
gether, and galloping up Main street for the fox hunt, — not the 
pursuit of some little creature provided for the purpose, to be let 
loose at the proper time, and to be hunted down by the dogs, but 
the starting up of wild animals on their own ground, where the 
foxes had holes and hiding places, and an even chance of escape ; 
where perhaps they, too, were having their little hunt about the 
barn-yards or hen-coops of the region. The jollification over the 
captured brush (fox tail), the dinner at the Black Horse Tavern 
in Woburn, and the winding up at night ended the busy day. 



The population of Somerville in 1860 was 8,025, and in- 
cluded in its number man)' men of widely recognized ability and 
influence. The magnitude of the impending struggle was not 
generally understood. Many welcomed it with light hearts, ac- 
cepting the theory of Secretary Seward, that ninety days would 
suffice for its satisfactory conclusion. 

The Somerville Light Infantry, organized in 1853, had its 
armory in the second story of the engine house at the corner of 
Washington and Prospect streets. It had, for five years prior 
to 1859, been under the command of Captain Francis Tufts, 
whose martial enthusiasm and skill as a tactician gave it high 
rank for efficiency in military circles. lie was succeeded by 
Captain George O. Brastow, a very able and public-spirited citi- 
zen, with sympathies as broad as humanity. He was frank, but 
courteous, in his bearing; his discipline was somewhat paternal, 
but he commanded at all times the respect and affection of his 
subordinates. The organization was officially designated as 
Company I, Fifth Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteer Militia. 
In obedience to orders, this company assembled at the armory 
April 18, 1861, and enrolled recruits to fill vacancies. Many of 
them were well-drilled men, formerly members of the militia, and 
all showed remarkable aptitude for the service. The physical 
examination was informal, and not by a physician. Zeal and 
patriotism were recognized as potent factors, and their outward 
manifestations were given full credence. The rule and gauge 
cannot be applied to the soul of a man. The regiment reported 
at Faneuil hall April 20 to partially complete equipment, and on 


Sunday morning, April 21, 1861, headed by resounding music, 
marched to the Boston & Albany station, and was soon en route 
for New York. 

I was in this campaign a tourist, with a musket, enjoying the 
rank and emoluments of a private. We embarked for the South 
on a steamer on the 22nd, were quartered mainly in the 
hold upon loose hay, among artillery caissons, and reached 
Washing-ton via Annapolis about the 26th; and were 
quartered in the Treasury building until the last days of May. 
We participated honorably in the Bull Fun campaign. The 
battle of that name, July 21, 1861, was hotly contested for three 
hours. The enemy's loss in killed and wounded exceeded our?, 
and their army could have been fought the following day at Cen- 
treville, ten miles distant. The result was a disappointment and 
an awakening. The defeat has been much exaggerated by non- 
combatants, who followed the army, and have been truthful so 
far as they portrayed their own cowardice. The company was 
mustered out July 31, having more than served its three months' 
term. It went under fire when discharge could have been equit- 
ably claimed, though the regiment was technically held from date 
of mustering in at Washington May 1, 1861. The duty rendered 
by the regiment was of transcendent importance became it was 
timely, materially aiding in saving the capital from seizure by 
the Confederates. This would have been a very grave disaster, 
affecting our prestige everywhere, and would have perhaps given 
the rebels the foreign alliances that would have secured their in- 

The Fifth Massachusetts Volunteer Militia had nine men 
killed at Bull Run, and about forty wounded. The Somerville 
company lost one private, E. F. Jlannaford, killed; he was 
reared, if not born, on Prospect hill, was a very quiet and sedate 
young man, exemplary in his habits, and attentive to duty, 
liam F. Moore died in hospital at Washington of disease, after 
the company had left that city. The company submitted uncom- 
plainingly to rigid discipline, and became very proficient in the 


manual of arms and skirmish drill, and when on patrol duty in 
Alexandria exhibited patience and tact, and commanded the re- 
spect of the inhabitants of every phase of political opinion. 

The Fifth Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, was 
again called for duty in September, 18G2, and for nine months the 
company from Somerville was designated as "Company B," in- 
stead of "I," and had for its two lieutenants Walter C. Bailey and 
John Harrington, who were sergeants in Company "I" in the 
three months' service. They were excellent officers, brave and 
kindly, exacting obedience without harassing their men with un- 
necessary orders, and vigilant in the safeguarding of the health 
-of the command. 

The regiment was, during this term, in North Carolina, and 
in several important movements, marched over six hundred miles, 
was under fire several times, had eight men wounded, and fully 
maintained the reputation of the regiment for staid deportment 
and alert readiness for dangerous duty. It was warmly com- 
mended by Major-General John G. Foster, commanding Eigh- 
teenth Corps, in a letter to Colonel George II. Pierson, on the 
expiration of its term. This mean! much, coming from the 
source it did. 

On July 25, 1864, the Fifth Massachusetts Volunteer Militia 
was again mustered into the service, on this occasion for one 
hundred days, the Somerville company being included, and did 
guard duty at Baltimore in Forts McHenry and Marshall, and 
other service in that vicinity. 

It is keenly regretted by veterans and man) others that the 
present local company, which is every way worthy of public es- 
teem, does not belong to the old Fifth, so long the pride of Mid- 
dlesex County; and it is hoped that, eventually, the old affiliation 
may be resumed, and the organization strengthened in popular 
affection, as the direct heir of the name and traditions of a noble 

The Thirty-ninth Massachusetts Volunteers were mustered 
into service for three years August 1*2, L8(tt. It included a Sum- 


-erville company, known as E, commanded by Captain Fred R 
Kinsley, with Joseph J. Giles, first lieutenant, and Willard C 
Kinsley, second lieutenant. Tlie above had all been in Companj 
I in the three months' campaign, as had also several of the 
and file. The regiment was transported to Washing-ion 
upon the arrival of the Fifth Corps early in -September, I8G2 at 
Arlington Heights, opposite Washington, I obtained a leave 01 
absence for a few hours, and, leaving the Twenty-second M 
chusetts Volunteers, my regiment, sought my friends in the 
Thirty-ninth. They were in fine trim, and greeted me cordially. 
and insisted upon presenting me a supply of much-needed under- 
clothing. My gaunt appearance, the result of the hardships of 
the peninsular campaign, must have impressed my hosts more 
than I then supposed, as my friend, Lieutenant J. J. Giles, n 
it even now, and describes it with racy humor. 

We pushed on, however, with grim determination to gra, 
with Lee at Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellor sville, 
Gettysburg, the Thirty-ninth doing duty on the line of the I'o 
tomac at Washington and elsewhere, until it joined the arm\ at 
the front, July 13, 16(53, after the battle of Gettysburg. It 
with the Fifth Corps during the campaigns of 18()4 and l s,; ">. u 
excellent regiment, in which the Somerville company was n 
passed. The regiment lost in action sixty-six men killed : 
wounded were about two hundred and fifty. The Somen 
company lost nine officers and men killed, or who died to 
wounds, and twelve who died from sickness or in prison. An 
dersonville found among its victims some of the flower i 
youth. One man, John S. Roberts, is classified as mis 
August 19, 1864. lie undoubtedly was killed in the battle at 
Weldon railroad on that day. Willard C. Kinsley, who attained 
the rank of captain, was, I believe, born within our limits in what 
was then Chariest own. His character was unique in mai 
spects. His nature was genth and loving, and the crucible i I 
war seemed only to develop these high qualities, lie was 
a martial temperament, hut his devotion to the cause and his < 


scientiousness were so inspiring that he was equal to all emer- 
gencies. Honor was dearer to him than the life which he lost at 
Five Forks. He was a noble type of the peaceable, inoffensive 
citizen under arms, from a sense of duty, in defense of his 

It is now my province to recall the service rendered by those 
not in the organizations closely identified with this community, 
but who were counted on its quota, in most instances, and had 
been residents of the then town prior to the war. They were dis- 
persed through over forty battalions and batteries, the largest 
number (twenty) being in the First Massachusetts Volunteer 
Cavalry; over three-fourths of those who were killed or died of 
wounds from Somerville were in this class, and they were the 
sole representatives of the town upon the firing- lines of the Army 
of the Potomac from August, 1861, to July 13, 1863. They also 
were conspicuous at Roanoke Island and Newbern; also in the 
navy during that period, and in the Department of the Gulf. 
Somerville was very liberal in its care of all who were dependent 
upon its soldiers, wherever serving; but its greetings and cour- 
tesies were wholly for the local companies associated with it in the 
public mind. This custom very generally prevailed throughout 
the state. I know of but one exception, when, in Virginia, at 
Camp Misery, just before the first battle oi Fredericksburg, De- 
cember 13, 1862, the Twenty-second Massachusetts was visited 
by an agent, representing, I believe, Dorchester, Mass. He had 
a list of all soldiers from his community, and extended kindly 
greetings to those he found, made careful notes regarding them, 
and took messages for friends and relatives. 1 le had also visited 
the general hospitals in Washington and elsewhere. His mis- 
sion was an agreeable surprise to those favored, and had an ex- 
cellent effect upon all with whom he conversed, I note the 
above incident as a lesson for the future, if unhappily it should 
ever be necessary for the city to again send its sons to war. 


It should be our duty, at this late date, to recall their 
patriotism, and bestow our meed of praise upon this element, 
which has in many respects been ignored in the past. 

When a portion of the three years' men re-enlisted in thi 
winter of 1863 and '(>-!, local attachment asserted itself, and the 
veterans almost unanimously gave their old homes as the plac 
to be credited with their names upon their respective quota.-. 
The organizations enlisted for three years in the early stages of 
the war were gradually winnowed by arduous campaigns. The 
commissioned officers of companies were drawn largely from en- 
listed men of proved merit, and the government was compelled, 
by the exigencies of the contest, to utilize these staunch battalions 
and batteries to the uttermost. They never failed to fight with 
steadfast courage, were proof against demoralization, and e 
when reduced to one-fifth of their original numbers would ad- 
vance to the assault with undiminished intrepidity. The Army 
of the Potomac was a wonderful fighting machine, leavened b\ 
the early volunteers, and Somerville cannot afford to forget 
them, though they were widely dispersed. I shall now briefl) 
mention a few of those who should be specially commemorated. 

Luther V. Bell was physician in charge of the McL 
asylum for several years, and a leader in town affairs, and of rec- 
ognized influence in the politics of the state. Pie was posse- 
of large means, but went to the front as surgeon of the Eleventh 
Massachusetts Volunteers. He visited us, the Fifth M. Y. M . 
before the battle of Bull Run at Alexandria, and proffered hi> 
skill and purse to the Somerville company. He rose to the rank 
of division surgeon, in charge of the medical service for three 
brigades, and, being in feeble health, died from sickness cause 
by exposure February 11, 18(J"3. » 

Martin Binney served in Company I, Fifth M. V. M. (Som- 
erville company), and in the Tenth Maine, and also in the 
Twenty-eighth Massachusetts, was captain on General Nelson A 
Miles' staff at battle of Reams Station, Va., August 25, 1SG4. and 
was very severely wounded, lie was noted for. his cheerfulness 
and intrepidity. 


Edward Brackett was a graduate of the Somerville High 
School, and a law student when he joined Company I, Fifth 
M. V. M. He entered the Tenth Maine ; was mortally wounded 
in September, 1862. He had been commissioned second lieuten- 
ant, but had not received his commission, when hurt. He pos- 
sessed a fine presence and rare ability, and, had lie been spared, 
would have had undoubtedly a distinguished career, both in 
military and civil life. His memory is still cherished by his old 
associates and admirers. He was always a gentleman, in w r ord, 
deed, and thought. 

Irvin M. Bennett, my brother, who enlisted in the Twenty- 
third Massachusetts when seventeen years old, is a native of 
Somerville. He was promoted corporal, and assigned to the color 
guard after the regiment has seen service, which shows the esti- 
mation in which he was held. He enjoyed the confidence of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel John Chambers, and was detailed to drill all the 
recruits, and was recommended for a commission in the United 
States colored troops. Though excused from duty for sick- 
ness, he advanced to the assault at Cold Harbor June 3; 1804, on 
the color guard, and was shot in the right arm, and carries the 
ball yet. His captain told me that Irvin was the best man in the 
regiment on the skirmish line. We did not meet during our 
terms, as he was wounded shortly after the Twenty-third came 
from North Carolina to join the Army of the Potomac. 

Frederick A. Galletly, a native of Somerville, killed in the. 
Twenty-third- Massachusetts before Petersburg Yugust 5, 1864, 
was a very brave soldier. His brother, James Galletly, served 
with the Thirty-first Massachusetts in Louisiana, and had the- 
reputation of being very intrepid; he died in 1899. 

J. Frank Giles was in Company 1, Fifth M. V*.M., in three- 
months' service; was sergeant-major of hirst Massachusetts 
Heavy Artillery, and when as infantry it encountered the Confed- 
erates at Spottsylvania, Va , May L9, I.8G1, he was severely 
wounded in the foot; he also is a native i\\ this city, 


Joseph Hale, a member of Company I, Fifth M. V. M., after 
the Bull Run campaign, enlisted in the Eleventh Regiment 
Regular Infantry, was in all the campaigns of the Army of the 
Potomac, was commissioned, rind when he died, in 1899, was the 
senior captain of infantry, and would have soon been promoted 
to rank of major. His death was caused by fever contracted in 

Henry C. Hammond, also of Company I, joined the Third 
Massachusetts Battery, was made corporal, and distinguished 
himself by his coolness and bravery at Gaines' Mills June 27, 

Richard Hill, a son of James Hill, a member of the school 
committee prior to 1849, enlisted as a private in the First Massa- 
chusetts Cavalry, was promoted to sergeant, and wounded at 
Aldie, Va., in June, 1863. He called on me just before the army 
crossed the Rapidan into the wilderness May 4, 1864. His bear- 
ing and appearance were those of an ideal cavalryman; like 
many Somerville men, he had his special theory. He said the 
rebels could shoot as long as we could, and that our cavalry 
should charge with sabre, and not use revolvers or carbines until 
the enemy turned in flight. I believe that he was correct, under 
then existing conditions, and knew that he had the intrepidity to 
exemplify his opinion. 1 le died in New Jersey several years ago. 

Charles M. Miller, a descendant of James Miller, who was 
killed on the slope of Prospect hill April 19, 1775, by the British, 
on their retreat from Concord, died from disease in Virginia 
June 15, 1864, while a member of the Eleventh Massachusetts 

James Millcn, an uncle of the Galletly brothers, was an ex- 
cellent soldier and an intelligent man. We were the only Som- 
erville men in Company (.1, of the Twenty-second. He was 
killed by a cannon ball at Mechanicsville, Va., June 26, 1862, 

Fletcher Nelson, a nephew of Captain Thomas Cunningham, 
was in Company I, of the Fifth M. V. M M and subsequently in 
the Twenty-third Massachusetts. lie was inordinately fond of 


reading, and of undaunted courage. He was mortally wounded 
at Drury's Bluff May 16, 1864, and died in Richmond, Va., June 
11 following. 

Edward L. Gilman, the only son of Charles E. Gilman, late 
city -clerk, was in Company G, First Massachusetts Infantry, and 
discharged for disability. He returned home, and died, after a 
long illness. Those who contracted disease and wounds in the 
service, and were discharged therefor, and never regained 
health, but soon passed away, should be added to the appalling 
list of our sacrifices for the Union. 

William D. Smith, who lived in the ''Hawkins Block" on 
Bow street, and attended the Prospect Hill school for many 
years, was noted for his ready wit and genial qualities. He en- 
listed in the Chelsea company of the First Massachusetts Volun- 
teers, and was killed in a gallant assault upon the enemy at 
Yorktown April 26, 1862. 

George W. West, long a resident of Somerville, and a lieu- 
tenant of the Somerville Light Infantry, soon after its organiza- 
tion, became colonel of the Seventeenth Maine during the war, 
serving with great distinction. He died last year at Athol, Mass. 

William W. Wardell, of the First Massachusetts Cavalry, 
was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant in that regiment, and 
died from wounds May 28, 1864. He was a very fine officer. 

Charles D. Elliot, appointed civil engineer in the army No- 
vember 23, 1862, and assigned to the Department of the Gulf, 
was on duty on staffs of Generals Franklin, Ashboth, and Grover, 
and under fire in the battle of Bisland, siege of Port Hudson, and 
expedition to Sabine Pass. Fie retired from the army on ac- 
* count of malarial sickness, and was especially commended in let- 
ters from General Grover and Major D. C. Houston, chief engi- 
■ neer Department of the Gulf. The Engineer Corps of the 
i regular army was a privileged class, influential enough to prevent 
those of equal ability from civil life, whose aid was indispensable, 
from being commissioned; but these assistants were not exempt 
I from peril for that reason, but did their full share of hazardous 



duty. The nine engineers from civil life, including Mr. Elliot, 
who served at the front in the Department of the Gulf in 18G3-'C4, 
lost in action three killed and one wounded; also one from dis- 
ease contracted in the service. The sixth, we fervently hope, 
will survive very many campaigns in the Somerville Historical 

John H. Rafferty , a son of the late Patrick Rafferty, well 
known and honored for his public services, resided in Somerville 
when he joined the Ninth Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry as 
second lieutenant. He was very efficient, and soon made first 
lieutenant, and was in command of his company at the battle of 
Malvern Hill July 1, 1862, and was then mortally wounded. He 
was a very brave officer, and his memory is cherished by the sur- 
vivors of that noble regiment. 

Thomas Mallahan enlisted from Somerville in Company D, 
Ninth Massachusetts Volunteers, served three years, was an ex- 
cellent soldier, brave and faithful ; was wounded three times ; 
has held a responsible position with a Medford-street meat pack- 
ing firm for over thirty years. 

Edward K. Pepper, a son of Edward Pepper, who was for 
many years an esteemed citizen of this community, was badly 
wounded on either the Congress or Cumberland in the engage- 
ment with the Merrimac in Hampton Roads March 8, 1862. 

Our homage is especially due to the enlisted men, who, de- 
void of hope of personal advancement, animated solely by 
patriotism, fought with untiring persistency, confident that we 
would win eventually by mere attrition, not knowing, at the close 
of a day's combat, whether to congratulate themselves or not on 
being alive, when, as in the Virginia campaign of 1864, the con- 
tact with the enemy was close, and the struggle almost unceas- 
ing and apparently interminable. 

It is our duty to aid in preserving the facts of which we are 
cognizant relative to the deeds of those of our city who were par- 
ticipants in the war which will ever be an epoch in history. I 
hope this contribution will be regarded as of some value. 


VOL. L, NO. 1. 

Elbridge Streeter Brooks Memorial Exerci 

The Tufts Family in Somerville Edward C. Booth, M. D. 

The Somerville Directory, 1851, 

Neighborhood Sketch No. 1 Jenette Teele 

Military Record of Captain Martin Binney Martin Binney 

VOL. I., NO. 2. 

Old Medford Turnpike .John F. Aver 

The Tufts Family in Some r. illc Edward C. Booth, M. D. 

Hon. Charles Hicks Saunders Charles D. Ell 

Hon. Isaac Story Charles D. Elliot 

Somerville Directory, 1851, continued. 

Military Sketch No. 2 Edmund H. Gooding 

VOL. I., NO. 3. 

The Stinted Common Charles D. Elliol 

Somerville as I Have Known It Amelia 11. Wo< I 

Neighborhood Sketch No. :' Aaron Sargent 

Edward Brackett Captain Martin Binney 

Somerville Directory, 1851, concluded. 

VOL. I., NO. 4. 

Ten Hills Farm Alida G. Sollers 

Somerville Soldiers in the Rebellion Colonel Edwin C. Bennett 


Old Tufts House, Headquarters Somerville Historical Society, 

Cover of No ! 

Portrait of Elbridge Streeter Brooks No. l. Paj 

Portrait of Judge Isaac Story No 2, L. 

Portrait of Aaron Sargent No. 

The Ten Hills Farm No. I, Page - 


Adams, Anne, wife of Peter, II. — 
2IT 22. 

Adams, Anne, wife of Timothy- 
Tufts, II. — 25. 

Adams, Chester, house of, III. — 21. 

Adams, Hannah, II. — 22. 

Adams, James Howe. 111. — 21. 

Adams, Joseph, II. — 24. 

Adams, Joseph, home of, III. — 
20, 21. 

Agassiz, Professor, IV. — 16. 

Albee, Godfrey B., II. — 20. 

Aldie, Va., IV. — 29. 

Alewife Brook, II.— 17; III.— 13, 20. 

Alexandria, Va., II.— 39; IV.— 24, 27. 

Ames Estate, IV. — 20. 

Andersonville, IV. — 25. 

Andrew, John A., II.— 29. 

Annand, Captain. I. — 38. 

Annapolis, IV. — 23. 

Antietam, Battle of, III.— 24; IV. 

Appleton, D. & Co., I. — 8. 

Arlington Heights, Va., II. — 39; 
IV.— 25. 

Arlington Line, III. — 20. 

Arlington, Mass., II. — 17. 

Army Corps, 2nd (Hancock's), I. 

Army Corps, 5th, IV. — 25. 
Army Corps, 18th, IV. — 24. 
Army of the Potomac, II. — 39; IV. 

— 26, 27, 28, 29. 
Ashboth, General, IV. — 30. 
Ashland, II.— 37. 
Athol, Mass., IV. — 30. 
Austin Estate, location of. III. — 19. 
Austin Street, Somerville, II. — 

14, 20. 
Authors' Club, The, I.— 11. 
Ayer, John P., I. — 13; II.— 7. 
Ayer, John P., Address of. I. — 14. 
Ayers, John, I. — 33. 
Ayers, Sallie, I. — 33. 
Ayers, Sallie D., I. — 33. 
Bacheller, Irving, I. — 11. 
Bailey, Walter C, IV— 24. 
Ball, Mary Brooks, II. — 28. 
Ballou, President, I. — 31, 32. 
Ballou, President, house of, I. — 32. 
Baltimore, Md., I. — 36; III. — 24; 

IV.— 24. 
Baltimore &. Ohio R. R., I. — 34; 

III.— 24. 
Bark Arabella, IV.— 9. 
Barlow, General F. C, I. — 37, 39. 
Barracks, Soldiers', T. — 23. 
Bath, Me., T. — 8. 
. Battle of Hastings, IV.— 13. 

Beardsley, John D., I. — 35, 36; III. 

Bell field, II.— 38. 

Bell. Lather V., IV.— 27. 
Bennett, Edwin C IV. — 22. 
Bennett. Irvin M., IV. — 28. 
Bertie Union Academy, N. C, II. 

Binney, Edward A., I.— 33; III. — 23. 

Binney, Henry M., I. — 33. 

Binney, Captain Martin, I.— 83; HI. 

--2:;, •_•;.; IV. 27. 
Binney, Captain Martin. Military 

Record of, I.— 33 to 39. 
Birch Swamp, I. — 22, 23. 
Bird, Lieutenant, T. — 38. 
Bisland, Battle of. IV. — 30. 
Black Horse Tavern, IV. — 21. 
Bleachery, The, II.— 24. 
Blessing of the Bay, The. IV. — 9. 
Bloody, Angle, I. — 3 8. 
Bloody Brook A mbuscade. I. — 21. 
Bolivar Heights, 1.— 35. 36. 
Bolles,. John David, home of, III. 

-- 20. 
Bonner Family, The, I. — 24. 
Boot. Kirk, IV.— 10. 
Booth, Edward C, M. D.. I.— 21. 
Boston & Albanv Station. IV. — 23. 
Boston & Lowell it. R., 11,-7, 30. 
Boston Common. II. — 29. 
Boston Independent Fusileers, I. 

Boston lag-lit Infantry, I.— 33. 
Bos t nn, Siege of. 1. — 8. 23. 
Boston SI reel. III.— 15, 17. 
Boston Tea Party, If. — 2S, 29. 
Bow Street, I.- 24; III.— 12, 13; IV. 

— 30. 
Bowen, Sergeant Nathan, II. — 29. 
Bowm n, Mrs. S. %.. II.— 24. 
Brackenburv. William, III. — 7. 
Brackott, Edward, I. — 34, 35, 36; 

in 2S to 25; IV. 28. 
Bradbury, Charles. III. — 19. 
Bradbury Hoes-. 1 If. -19. 
Brastow. Captain George O.. I. — 33. 

34.; til.— 20, 23; 1 V L'2. 
Brastow .School. Ill 17. 
Bray, Major. robf»er> of, IV.— 12. 
i. ■ d's Hill. IV -13. 
Brick Soitoni. 111. 
Briokmokers on Med id Turnpike, 

1812, If.— 16. 17. 
Brickmakers, the la of the, II. 

Brickmaklng, I! — 1 

Briokmaking. mat^ri for, II. — 17. 

Brighton Street, ill. L5. 



Bridge, Cambridge, IL— 10, 

Bridge, Charlestown, II. — 8, 10. 

Bridge, Essex, II. — 8. 

Bridge, Maiden, II. — 8, 16. 

Bridge, London, II. — 8. 

Bridges, Ferryman, I. — 21. 

Broadway, Somervilk:, I.— 31, 32; 
II.— 21, 22, 23; III.— 12, 13, 14, 17, 
19, 21. 

Broadway Park, II. — 19. 

Brooklyn Daily Times, I. — S. 

Brooks, Christine, I,— 11. 

Brooks, Elbridge Gerry, I. — 7. 

Brooks, Elbridge Streeter, Bio- 
graphical Sketch of, I. — 7 to 13. 

Brooks, Elbridge Streeter, An- 
cestry of, I. — 7, S. 

Brooks, Elbridge Streeter, Action 
of Somerville Historic;!.] .Society 
on death of, I. — 13. 

Brooks, Elbridge Streeter, Funeral 
Services, I.— 11. 

Brooks, Elbridge Streeter, Memo- 
rial Services in honor of, I. — 
13, 14. 

Brooks, Elbridge Streeter, Oceupa- 
. tions of, I.— 8. 

Brooks, Elbridge Streeter, Pub- 
lished Works of, I. — 9, 10, 11. 

Brooks, Geraldine, 1. — 11. 

Brooks, John, II.— 10. 

Brooks, Joshua, I. — S. 

Brooks, Martha Fowle (Munroe), I. 
— 7. 

Brooks, Oliver, I. — 7. 

Brooks, Rev. Phillips, I. — 17. 

Buel, Samuel, II. — '20. 

Bull Run. I.— 34; III.— 23, 21; IV.— 

23, 27, 29. 

Bunker Hill, Battle of, II— 22, 29; 
IV.— 12. 

Bunker Hill Monument, II.— 29; 
IV. — 15. 

Bunker Hill Monument Association, 
II.— 28. 

Burgoyne's Army, II. — 22. 

Burkesville, Vn„ II. — 38. 

Butterworth, Hezekiah, L— 14. 

Butterworth, Hezekiah, Address by, 
I.— 18, 19. 

Byrnes, Colonel Richard, I. — 38, 39.. 

Cambridge, II. — 9. 

Cambridge Club, II. — 28. 

Cambridge Line, I. — 23; HI. — 1-1. 

Cambridge Lyceum, II.- 

Cambridge Parish, I. — 22. 

Cambridge Street, III. — 12. 

Camp Misery, Va., IV. — 2G. 

Cape Elizabeth, I. — 34. 

Capen, President, I. — 14. 20. 

Cartwright, Colonel George W., I. 

Catholic Parochial School, Somer- 
ville, HI.— 17. 

Cedar Mountain, I. — 3, (i; III. — 

24, 25. 

Cedar Street, III.— 14. 
Central Hill. III.— 7, 12. 
Central Square, HI.— 17. 

Central Street. II.— 21. 
Centreville Heights, Va., I 

in.— 23; IV.— 23. 
Century Co., The, I. — 10. 
Chambers, Lieutenant-' ' 

John, IV.— 28. 
Chaneellorsville, IV.— 25. 
Charities Commissioners, England, 

III.— 9. 
Charleston, S. C, I. — 35. 
Charlestown, I. — 31. 
Charlestown, Church of, III. 
Charlestown celebration J ui 

1780, II.— 8. 
Charlestown, completion of bi 

II.— 8. 
Charlestown, early settlers, h 

of, HI.— 7. 
Charlestown, "Land without the 

Neck," III.— 7. 
Charlestown Line, III. — 19, 2 0. 
Charlestown Neck, II. — 9, 10; III. 

Charlestown, Plan of, II.— 23. 
Charlestown Enterprise, The, IV. 

Chase, Mary Ann, II. — 30. 
Chauncey Avenue, II. — 19. 
Ohauncey Avenue, old foot-bridge 

near, II. — 19. 
Ohoate, Rufus, IV.— 15. 
City Point, Va., L— 39; II.— 3S. 
City Square, Charlestown, III.— ,. 
Clark University, 'II. — 30. 
Clay, Henry, IV.— 15. 
Cochran, Captain. I. — 38. 
Cold Harbor, Va., I.— 38, 39; IV. 

College Hill, III.— 14. 
Combination Park. II. — 14. 
Concord, Mass., IV. — 29. 
Congress, The, IV. — 31. 
Continentals, The, Retreat 

Corduroy Road, Charlestown 

II.— 9. 
Cow Commons, IIT. — 7. 
Cow Commons, English law c 

cerning, III. — 9. 
Cox, Lemuel, II. — 8. 
Crampton's Gap, I. — 3fi. 
Crasswell, Thomas. III. — 11. 
Cross Street. Somerville. II. — 25; 

III. — 13, 14, 20. 
Cumberland, The, IV.— 31. 
Cunningham, Captain Thomas V 

Curtis," J. O., II.— 13. 
Curtis Street, I.— 31, 32; III.— 1 1. 
Curtis Street, houses on. I.— 31 
Curtis Street, first house or. I 
Curtis Street, a rangfeway. I. — 31. 
Cutter Family. The. II.- 1 3, 
Cutter, Anne Benjamin. II. 22 
Cutter, Ebenezer F.. Estate of. 1)1 


Cutter. Edward, III. — 1 

20. 25. 
Cutter, Edward, house of. Ill 

II.- 1.; 



Cutter, Deaeon Ephraim, II. — 22. 

Cutter, Fitch, II. — 16. 

Cutter, Pitch, home of, III. — 20. 

Cutter, George, II. — 14, 15. 

Cutter, Lieutenant John, III. — 10. 

Cutter, Susan, II. — 25. 

Cutter's Mill, Medford Turnpike, II. 

—14, 16. 
Dane Street, I.— 22. 
Daughters A. R., Anne Adams 

Tufts Chapter, II.— 21, 25. 
Davidsdn Rubber Co., II. — 19. 
"Daylight Assault," The, I. — 38. 
Deep Bottom, I. — 39. 
De Jacques, Sire Rolande, IV. — 13. 
Department of the East, I. — 37. 
Department of the Gulf, IV. — 26, 

30, 31. 
Derby, Elias Hasket, II.— 13; IV. 

— 13. 
Derby Street, IV. — 10. 
Detroit Free Press, I. — 11. 
"Dividents," III. — 13. 
Dix, Major-General John A., III. 

Dorchester Heights, II. — 22. 
Dorchester, Mass., IV. — 26. 
Dover, N. H., II.— 24. 
Dow, L. W., I.— 31, 32. 
Drury's Bluff, IV.— 30. 
Dugan House, location of, III. — 15. 
East Somerville, III.— 7, 12, 17. 
Edgerly, John S., III. — 20. 
Edgerly, John S., home of, III.— 20. 
Edmands Family, The, II. — 26. 
Edwards Ferry, I. — 36. 
Eliot, Me., I. — 7. 
Elliot, Charles D., I.— 13; II.— 28, 

29; III.— 7; iV.— 30, 31. 
Elm Street, II.— 22, 23, 25, 26; III. 

Engineer Corps, r l he, IV. — 30. 
Everett, Hon. Edward, home of, III. 

Everett Spring, I. — 21. 
Ewar, Thomas, III.— 7. 
Fairfax Seminary, Va., II. — 39. 
Faneuil Hall, IV. — 22. 
Fay, Richard S., IV.— 18. 
Ferrold, Tobias, Company of, I. — 8. 
Ffiske, Ensigne David, III. — 13. 
Fields, James T., I. — 18. 
First M. E. Church, I. — 24. 
Fisk, Benjamin, II. — 15, 16. 
Fisk, Benjamin, brickyard of, II. 

Fisk, Mark, II.— 18; IV.— 20. 
Fitchburg R. R., II.— 26; III.— 8. 
Fitz Familv, The, II. — 25. 
Five Forks, IV. — 26. 
Fleming, Major, I. — 38, 39. 
Fletcher, Mrs. Dr., II.— 23. 
Flagg, Submit, II.— 25. 
Fogg Family, The, I. — 8. 
"Forced March," The, III.— 24. 
Ford, J. B. & Co., I.— 8. 
Ford of the Mistick, II.— 9. 
Forster, Charles E., III. — 21. 
Fort Marshall, IV.— 24. 

Port Maverick, IV. — 9. 

Fort Mo Henry, IV. — 24. 

Port No. 1, E. — 8. 

Port No. 3, I. — 23. 

Foss, Sam Walter, I.— 11, 14. 

Poss, Sam Walter, hymn by, I. — 20. 

Poster, George, II.— 20. 

Poster, Major General John G., IV. 

Franklin Academy, Pa., II. — 29. 
Franklin, General, IV. — 30. 
Franklin Street, 111.— 14, 15, 17, 2£. 
Franklin-street Church, III.— 17. 
Fredericksburg, IV.— 25, 26. 
Free Academy, N. Y., I. — 8. 
French and Indian War, I. — 23. 
Frost Family, The, II. — 26. 
Frost, Samuel Tufts, I. — 24. 
Frost. .Samuel Tufts, house of, I. 

Frost. Samuel Tufts, relics of, I. 

—2 4. 
Cage, General, Expedition of, IV. 

Galletly, Frederick A., IV.— 28. 
Galletly, James, IV. — 28. 
Gaines' Mills, IV.— 29. 
Gardner's Battery, lnd., I. — 35. 
Garrison, William Lloyd, I. — 18. 
Gettysburg, IV. — 25. 
Giesboro Point, II. — 37, 3S. 
Giles. J. Frank, IV.— 28. 
Giles, Joseph J., IV.— 25, 28. 
Gilman, Charles P., IV.— 30. 
Gilman, Edward P., IV.— 30. 
Glen Street, Somerville, III. — 18. 
Gooding, Edmund H., II. — 37, 39. 
Goodnow, John, 1 1. — -13. 
Gowell, Alary, I. — 8. 
Great Pasture, boundaries of, I. 

Greene, General, headquarters of, I. 

Green, John, Recorder, III. — 8. 
"Green." The, IV. — 9. 
Greenville Street, III. — 16. 
Grist -Mi l Is, Prospect Hill, I.— 7. 
Groton, England, IV. — 9. 
Grbver, General, IV. — 30. 
Gypsy Lane, 11. — 14. 
Hadley, Benjamin, II. — 16, 20. 
Hadley House, location of, 1S53, III. 

— 15. 
Hale, Joseph. IV.— 29. 
Hall, Benjamin, II. — 10. 
Hall, Dudley, 11. —-13. 
Hall, Ebenezer, II.— 10. 
Mall, bitch, II.— 10* 
Halltown, [.—34, 35, 
Hammond. Captain Ear, III. — 10. 
Hammond, Henry C, IV.— 29. 
Hampton Roads. IV.— 31. 
Hancock, Governor John, II. — 25. 
Hancock, Major-General, I. — 37. 
Hancock's 2nd Army Corps, I. — 39. 
Hannaford. P P., IV.— 23. 
Harbour, J. L„ 1.— 14. 
Harbour, J. I,., Address by, I. — 14 
to 17. 


Harper's Ferry, I.— 34, 35, 36; II.— 

38; III.— 24, 25. 
Harrington, John, IV. — 24. 
Harvard Square Cemetery, I. — 22. 
Hawkins Block, IV. — 30. 
Hawkins Family, The, II. — 25. 
Hawkins House, II. — 23. 
Haxall's Landing, II. — 38. 
Heald, Mrs. Helen E. M., II.— 25. 
Heath, General, II. — 29. 
Henderson. Mrs. Franklin, II. — 24. 
Hessian Prisoners, II. — 29. 
Hicks, John, II.— 28. 
Highland Avenue, Somerville, I. 

Hill House, III.— 16. 
Hill, Major General A. P., III.— 24. 
Hill, James, IV. — 29. 
Hill, Richard, IV.— 29. 
Holden, George \V\, 1. — 31. 32. 
Holden, Simon, house of, I.— 32. 
Holt, Chauncey, II. — 16, 19. 
Hopkins Classical School, II.— 28. 
Home, Susan, I. — 7. 
Houston, Major D. C, IV. — 30. 
Hoyt, Frank, I. — 11. 
Independent Fusileers, Boston, I. 

James' River, I.— 39; II.— 3S. 

Jaques Family, origin of, IV. — 13. 

Jaques, George, IV. — 10, 15. 

Jaques, George M., IV. — 15, 20. 

Jaques, Harriett, IV. — IS. 

Jaques, Henry, IV. — 13. 

Jaques, Colonel Samuel, II. — 13, 17, 
19; IV.— 12, 13, 15 to 20. 

Jaques, Colonel Samuel, farm of, 
how stocked, IV. — 14. 

Jaques, Colonel Samuel, tenants of, 
II.— 19. 

Jaques, Sir Richard, IV. — 13. 

Jaques, Sir Roger, IV. — 13. 

Jaques, William, II. — 16, 19. 

Jaques & Stanley. IV. — 14. 

Jerusalem Plank Road, II. — 38. 

Johnson Family, The, II. — 20. 

Kenneson, Albert, II. — 19. 

Kenneson, Albert, home of, 111. — 20. 

Kidd, Captain, IV.— 18. 

Kidder, Arthur T., I. — 11. 

Kidder, Tollkeeper Medford Turn- 
pike, II. — 14. 

King-field, Me., II.— 26. 

Kinsley, Calvin, II. — 20. 

Kinsley, Captain Fred R., IV.— 25. 

Kinsley, Silas, II.— 16. 

Kinsley, Willard C, IV.— 25. 

Kittery, Me., I. — 7, 8. 

Lafayette, General. IV. — 15. 

Lancers, The, I. — 39. 

Larcom, Lucy, I. — 18. 

Lawler, Major, I. — 38. 

Lawrence, Daniel, II. — 13. 

Lee, General F., I. — 38. 

Lee, General Charles, Head- 
quarters of. II. — 23, 24. 

Lee, Robert E., army of, HI. — 2 1; 
IV.— 25. 

Leland, Caleb, House, II. — 23, 26. 

Lexington, battle of, II. — 28, 29. 

Lidgett, Charles, IV. — 10. 

Lidgett, Lieutenant Colonel, IV. 

— 10. 
Lidgett, Elizabeth, IV.— 10. 
Lincoln, President, death of, II. 

Littlefield, Samuel, II. — 19. 
Locke, Margaret (Adams), II. — 22. 
Locke, Martha, II. — 22. 
Locke, Samuel, II. — 22. 
London Heights, I. — 34, 36. 
Long Bridge, I.-— 33. 
Long Island, II. — 29. 
Longstreet, General, I. — 36. 
Loring Family, The, II. — 2C. 
Lothrop, D., Co., I. — 8, 11. 
Lowden, Sergeant Rled, III. — 10. 
Lowell R. R., III.— 15. 
Lowell R. R., bridge over, III. — 15. 
Lowell Street, Somerville, II. — 21; 

III.— 14. 
Luray Valley, I.— 36. 
Lyndes, Joseph, III. — 10. 
Lyndes, Thomas, Sr., III. — 8. 
Lynn Academy, II. — 29. 
Lynn, Mass., I. — 8. 
Magazine Street, Cambridge, II. 

Magner, Captain, I. — 38. 
Magoun Family, The, II. — 35. 
Magoun, John C, II. — 24; III.— 20. 
Magoun. John C, home of, III. — 22. 
Main Street, III. — 12,. 19. 
"Main, The," III.— 7. 
Maine Vol., 10th Regiment, I. — 34. 

35, 37; III., 24. 
Maine Vols., 10th Regiment, Co. P., 

I.— 35. 
Maine Vols., 17th Regiment, I. — 36: 

III. — 25. 
Maiden, Mass., I. — 21, 22. 
Maiden Ferry, I. — 21. 
Maiden River, I. — 21. 
Mallahan, Thomas, IV. — 31. 
Malvern Hill, IV.— 31. 
Manassas Junction, I. — 33, 36; III. 

"Manor House, The," Description 

of, IV.— 10, 11, 12. 
"Manor House, The," Destruction 

of, IV.— 20. 
Marblehead, II. — 29. 
Marblehead Light Infantry, II. — 2D. 
Marshall Street, III. — 21. 
Marshall, Wyzeman, III. — 21. 
Marston, England, Bequest to the 

Poor, III.— 9. 
Martlnsburg, I. — 35. 
Maryland Heights, I. — 35, 36. 
Mass. Battery, 3rd, IV.— 29. 
Mass. Battery, 11th, IV.— 29. 
Mass. Bay Colony, IV. — 9. 
Mass. Brick Company, II. — 17. 
Mass. Cavalry, 1st Regiment, IV. — 

26, 29, 30. 
Mass. Cavalrv, 1st Regiment, Co. 

A, I.— 39; II.— 38. 

Mass. Cavalry, 1st Regiment, Co. 

M, II.— 37. 
Mass. Heavy Artillery, 1st., IV. 

Mass. Infantry, 1st Regiment, Co. 

G, IV.— 30. 
Mass. Infantry, 5th Regiment, I. — 

33; IV.— 23. 
Mass. Infantry, 5th Regiment, Co. 

B, IV.— 24. 
Mass. Infantry, 5th Regiment, Co. 

I, J- 33; III.— 23, 24; IV.— 22, 

23, 27, 28, 29. 
Mass. Infantry, 9th Regiment, IV. 

Mass. Infantry, 9th Regiment, Co. 

D, IV.— 31. 

Mass. Infantry, 11th Regiment, IV. 

Mass. Infantry, 22nd Regiment, IV. 

—25, 26. 
Mass. Infantry, 22nd Regiment, 

Co. G, IV.— 29. 
Mass. Infantry, 23rd Regiment, IV. 

— 28, 29. 
Mass. Infantry, 28th Regiment, IV. 

Mass. Infantry, 28th Regiment, Co. 

B, I.— 37, 38, 39. 
Mass. Infantry, 31st Regiment, IV. 

Mass. Infantry, 39th Regiment, Co. 

E, IV.— 24, 25. 

Mass. State Militia, I. — 33. 
McClellan, Major General, Army of, 

III.— 24. 
Mclntire, Captain, I. — 38. 
McLean Asylum, III. — 15; IV. — 27. 
Mechanicsville, Va., IV.— 29. 
Medford lane, II. — 13. 
Medford Street, III. — 15, 1G. 
Medford Turnpike, The Old, II. — 7 

to 20. 
Medford Turnpike, abandoned, II. 

Medford Turnpike, brickmakeis 

along the, II. — 16. 
Medford Turnpike, construction of, 

II.— 13, 14. 
Medford Turnpike, corporation of, 

II.— 10. 
Medford Turnpike, cost of, II. — 12. 
Medford Turnpike, a highway, II. 

— 14, 15. 
Medford Turnpike, incorporators 

of, II.— 10. 
Medford Turnpike, last toll-collec- 
tor of, IT.— 14. 
Medford Turnpike, opening of, IV. 

Medford Turnpike, rates of tolls, 

II.— 11, 12. 
Medford Turnpike, stockholders, II. 

Medford Turnpike, toll-house, II. 

Medford Turnpike, value of shares 

in, II.— 13. 

Medford Turnpike Association, The, 
It. --10. 

Menotamies River, III. — 12. 

Merrimac, The, IV. — 31. 

Messer, Captain, I. — 33; III.— 23. 

Messinger & Cahill, IV.— 10. 

Methodist Church, Webster Ave- 
nue, III.— 17. 

Middleboro, 11.— 29. 

Middle Department, I. — 34. 

Middlesex Canal, II. — 7. 10, 11, 19. 

Middlesex Canal, opening of, . IV. 

Middlesex Canal, people connected 
with, [L— 10. 

Middlesex County, IV. — 24. 

Middlesex County Census, 1850, I. 

Middlesex House, H. — 10. 

Mike Martin, IV. —12. 

Miles, Colonel Dixon S., I. — 34, 36;. 
111., 24. 

Miles, General Nelson A., IV.— 27. 

Military Sketch No. 1, I.— 33. 

Military Sketch No. 2. 11.— 37. 

Milk Row, II. — 9, 10. 21, 26. 

Milk Row Station, III.— 10. 

Millen, James, IV. — 29. 

Miller, Charles IU., IV.— 29. 

Miller, James, IV.— 29. 

Miller's River, 111. — 17. 

Minute Men at Lexington, I. — 9. 

MiK-hell House, location of, III. 

Monument to Fallen Heroes, Lex- 
ington, I. — 9. 

Moore, William P., IV.— 23, 29. 

Mori 1 1, Henry, I.— 11. 

Morse, John, I. - 23. 

Mount Auburn Cemetery. I- — 11; II. 
—2 1. 

Mousalls, John, III.— 11, 12. 

Monroe, Ensign Robert, I. — 9. 

Munroe Family, The, I. — 7. 

Mu n roe House, location of, 1853, 
III.— 15. 

Mystic Avenue, HI.— 17; IV.— 10. 

Mystic, Marshes of the, II. — 13. 

Mystic River, IV. — 9. 

Nathan Tufts Park, til. — IS, 

N. j:. Historic Genealogical So- 
ciety, II.-- 28 

Neighborhood Sketch No. I. I.— 31. 

Neighborhood Sketch No. 2, III. 

Nelson, Fletcher, IV.— 29. 

New Battalion, 1st Mass. Cavalry,. 
EI.— 37. > 

Newbern, N. C, IV.— 2(5. 

Newbury, Mass , IV. — 13. 

New York Artillery, 6th, 1 — 35. 

Noddle's island, I v.— 9. IG 

Norfolk County, England. I. — 21. 

Normandy. IV. 

North Anna, i (8, 

North Street, HI. -14. 

Noyes, Captain, I.— 38. 

Oak man, Samuel. IV.— 20. 


O'Brien, Lieutenant Edward 1<\, I. 

Odd Fellows' Building-, Somervilie, 

III.— 21. 
Old South Church, Boston, IV.— 9. 
Page, Captain, I. — 38. 
Page's Tavern, II. — 10. 
Parker, Benjamin, II. — 19. 
Parker, Captain Benjamin P., II. 

— 19. 
Parson Estate, IV. — 20. 
Patapsco River, III. — 24. 
Patterson, Colonel, I. — 23. 
Patterson Park, Baltimore, I. — 34. 
Pearl Street, III.— 18. 
Pepper, Edward, IV. — 31. 
Pepper, Edward K., IV. — 31. 
Perkins, Colonel Thomas Handyside, 

IV— 16. 
Perkins Family, The, II. — 14. 
Perkins House, Medford Turnpike, 

II. — 14. 
Perkins-street Church, III. — 17. 
Perry, Elizabeth, II. — 23. 
Petersburg, Va., I. — 39; II. — 38; IV. 


Pierce] Abigail, I. — 23. 
Pierce Academy, II. — 29. 
Pierce, Elizabeth (wife of Ebenezer 

Smith), I.— 24. 
Pierce, James, I. — 23. 
Pierce, Mary, wife of Nathaniel 

Tufts, I.— 24. 
Pierce, Mary, wife of John Stone, I. 

Pierce, Thomas, II. — 29. 
Pierson, Colonel George H.. IV. — 2 4. 
Pierson, Rev. William H., L — 11, 14. 
Pierson, Rev. William 11., Address 

by, I.— 19. 
Pillsbury, L. B., I.— 13. 
Ploughed Hill, II. — 10. 
Point of Rocks, I. — 30. 
Pope, General, I. — 36. 
Pope, General, Army of, III, — 24. 
Po River, I. — 38. 
Port Hudson, siege of, IV. — 30. 
Portland, Me., I. — 34. 
Portsmouth, N. H., I.— 7. 
Potomac River, I. — 36; IV. — 25. 
Powder House, II. — 21, 22, 23; IV. — 

12; III. — 13, 14, 20, 22. 
Powder House Square, III. — 13, 14. 
Prentice, Beulah, II. — 25. 
Professors' Row, I. — 32. 
Programmes of Meetings, IV.— 6. 
Prospect Hill, I. — 9. 
Prospect Hill, Earthworks on, I. 

Prospect Hill School, IV. — 30. 
Prospect Hill Skating Ground, I. 

Prospect Street, I. — 22; IV. — 22. 
Province Magazine, IV. — 12. 
Ptollopottomy Creek, I. — 38. 
Publishers' Weekly, I. — S. 
Putnam, General, I. — 7. 
Putnam, Mary, I. — 22. 
Putnam, Nathaniel, I. — 22. 

Quint, Wilson, II.— 14, 15. 

Rafferty, John H., IV:— 31. 

ttafferty, Patrick, IV.— 31. 

Railroad Brigade, III.— 24. 

Rand, Mary, I. — 22. 

Rand, William, I.— 22. 

Randall, Deacon Benjamin, home 

of, III.— 15. 
Rangeways, III. — 10, 14. 
Rangeways West of Powder House, 

III, — 14. 
Ranks, Christopher,- I. — 23. 
Rapidan, The, IV. — 29. 
Rappahannock River, I. — 37. 
Raymond Family, The, II. — 26. 
Readville, Mass., II.— 37, 39. 
Reams Station, II. — 38. 
Reed, F. O., IV.— 20. 
Reed, J. T., IV.— 20. 
Reed's Corner, II. — 10. 
Regular Infantry, 11th Regiment, 

IV.— 29. 
Relay House, I. — 34, 35. 
Revolutionary War, The, IV. — 

12. 13. 
Rieheson, Ezekial, III.— 7. 
Richmond, Va., I. — 39; II. — 37, 3S; 

IV.— 30. 
Ring, Gardner, II. — 16, 18. 
Ring, Gardner, House of, III— 21. 
Roanoke Island, IV— 26. 
Roberts, John S., IV. — 25. 
Rogers, William. II.— 13. 
Rowe Lot. The, III. — 13. 
Roxbury, Mass., II. — 26. 
Royal Farm, The, II.— 22. 
Royal, Sir Isaac, IV.— 10. 
Russell, Hon. Charles Theodore, II. 

Russell, Francis, home of, III. — 16. 
Russell, Governor, II. — 29. 
Russell. James, III. — 10. 
Russell, Hon. Thomas, III. — 12. 
Russell Estate, location of, III.— 20. 
Russell House, II. — 10; III. — 15. 
Sabine Pass, IV. — 30. 
Safe Books for the Young, I.— 16. 
Salem, IV— 9, 18. 
Salem Village, I. — 22. 
Sampson's Cross Roads, IT. — 37. 
Sanborn Family, The, I.— 24. 
Sanborn, John, II. — 16. 20. 
Sanborn, Joseph P., II. — 16, 20. 
Sanborn, William A., II. — 20. 
Sargent, Aaron, III. — 19. 
Saunders, Hon. Charles Hicks, II. 

— 28. 
SaundarB, Charles R., II. — 2S. 
Saunders, Martin. II. — 28. 
Sawyer. Dr., I. — 32. 
Sawyer, Dr., house of. I. — 32. 
Sawyer, Mrs. E. R.. III. — 81. 
Sawyer, Timothy T., IV— 20. 21. 
Saxton, General Rufus, I. 
Scammon, Colonel James. I. — S. 
School Street, Somervilie, 1. — 21; 

JU— 14. 21. 
Seward, Secretary. IV. — 22. 
Sharpsburg, I. — 35. 


Shawmut Street, III.— 14, 15. 
Sheldon & Co., I.— 8. 
Shenandoah River, I. — 36. 
Shenandoah Valley, III. — 24. 
Shepard Memorial Association, II. 

— 28. 
Sheridan, Army of, I. — 36. 
Sheridan's Raid, II. — 37. 
Shirley, Governor, IV. — 12. 
Shooter's Hill, I. — 33. 
Shute, James, II. — 20. 
Simpson Avenue, III. — 14. 
Simpson^Farm, II. — 17. 
Smith, Charles H., of Worcester, I. 

Smith, Ebenezer, I. — 24. 
Smith, William D., IV.— 30. 
Smythe, General Thomas A., I. — 37. 
Sollers, Mrs. Alida G., IV. — 9. 
Somerville as I have Known It, III. 

Somerville Avenue, I. — 22, 24; II. — 

24; III.— 12, 13, 14, 17. 
Somerville Directory, 1851, I. — 25 to 

30; II.— 24, 31 to 36; III.— 20 

to 36. 
Somerville Highlands, III. — 14. 
Somerville High School, IV. — 28. 
Somerville Historical Society, I. — 

11, 13, 14, 15; II.— 9, 23, 28; IV. 

Somerville Historical Society, 

action of, on death of E. S. 

Brooks, I. — 13. 
Somerville Historical Society, Com- 
mittees of 1902-3, IV.— 4. 
Somerville Historical Society, 

Headquarters of, II. — 9; III. — 13. 
Somerville Historical Society, Offi- 
cers of 1902-3. IV.— 4. 
Somerville Historical Society, 

Work of Five Years, IV.-f>. 
Somerville Journal. I. — 7, 11. 
Somerville Light Infantry, I. — 33, 

34; III.— 33; IV.— 22, 30. 
Somerville No-License Vote, III. 

— 18. ' 
Somerville Police Court, II. — 30. 
Somerville Schools and Churches, 

III.— 17. 
Somerville, Seven Hills of, III.— 18. 
Somerville Soldiers in the Civil 

War, IV.— 22. 
Somerville Streets, 1851-2, I. — 28. 
Somerville Town Government, 

1851-2, I.— 27. 
Sons of American Revolution, II. 

Sons of Liberty, II. — 29. 
South Anna, I. — 38. 
South Mountain, I. — 36; III. — 24. 
South Side R. R., II.— 38. 
Spottsylvania, 1. — 38; IV. — 28. 
Sprague, Mary, I. — 22. 
Sprague, Ralph, III. — 7. 
Sprague, Captain Ried, III. — 10. 
Spring Hill, III.— 7. 
Spring Hill Baptist Church, III.— 7. 

Stage Coach, Description of, II. — 9. 

Stage Coach Travel, II. — 9. 

Stage Coach, United States Mail, 

II.— 9. 
Staniels, J. P., home of, III. — 21. 
Staple Family, The, I. — 8. 
Stearns, Dr. Luther, house of, II. 

Stearns House, location of, til. — 19. 
Steams, Sally, 111. — 19. 
Stevensburg Plains, I. — 37. 
Stieger, E. & Co., I. — 8. 
Stinted Common, The, III. — 7. 
Stinted Common, apportionment of 

rights in, III. — 7. 
St hi ted Common, area of, III. — 7. 
Stinted Common, committee of 

proving titles of, III. — 10. 
Stinted Common committee, report 

of, J II.— 11. 
Stinted Common, drawing for lots 

in. III.— 12. 
Stinted Common in England and 

Sweden, III. — B. 
Stinted Common, how deeded, III. 

Stinted Common, measured, III. — 10. 

St in ttil Common, plan of, III. — 13. •. 

Stinted Common, portion sot oft! • 
for Church of Charlestown, III. 

Stinted Common, portion set off for 
Military Wxercise, III. — 11, 12. 

Stinted Common, Ranges divided 
into lots. II I. — 14. 

Stinted Common. Record of divi- 
sion of rt mainder, 1085, III.— 12. 

Stinted Common, Rights of owners, 
III.— S, It. 

Stinted Common, Rowe lot, III. 

St i ni. d Common, Titles of owner- 
ship to, HI.— 8. 

Stinted Common, Wheeler lot, III. 

Stinted Common, Width of ranges, 
II!. -13. 

Stinted Pasture. HI. — 7, 8, 9, 12, 14. 

St Joseph's Church, I.— 22. 

St. Nicholas .Magazine, The, I. — 8, 
9, IS 

Stone Avenue, I.— 23. 

Stone Family, The, I.— 24. 

Stone, John, I. — 2 1. 

Dr. Klisha, II.- 


Slol\ . 

Story, lion. Is; 

k W., II.— 30. 
II.— 29. 

Store. Isaac M., 1 1. — 30. 
Story, Isaae. Sr.. II. — 29. 
Story, Hon.. Joseph. II. — 29. 
Story, Surah Martin (Bowen), 

Storv, William E M II.— 30. 
Strawheirx Plains, I.- — 39. 
Stuart, General, I. — 38. 
Sullivan, Richard, Til. — 12. 
Sullivan Square, III.— 12. 
Suffolk Bank, Boston, II.— 28. 



Suffolk, England, IV.— 13. 
Sussex, England, IV. — 13. 
Sycamore Street, Somerville, IIT. 

— 17. 
Teele, Jonathan, I. — 31. 
Teele, Jonathan, house of, I. — 31. 
Teele, P. Jenette, I. — 31. 
Teele, Samuel, I. — 31, 32. 
Teele, Samuel, house of, I. — 32. 
Teele, S. F., 1.— 31, 32. 
Teele, W. L., I. — 31, 32. 
Temple, Sir Robert, IV. — 10, 12, IS. 
Temple, Robert, Jr., IV. — 1.2. 
Temple, Robert, wife of, IV. — 12. 
Temple Street, II. — 13, 10, 17, 19; 

IV.— 10, 12, 20. 
Ten Hills Farm, II.— 13, 20; III. — 

14; IV.— 10 to" 23,. 
Ten Hills Farm, with Anecdotes 

and Reminiscences, IV. — it. 
Three Pole Lane, III. — 14, 15, 20. 
"Tigers, The," I. — 33. 
Titus, Rev. Anson, I. — 7. 
Todd's Tavern, II.— 37. 
Torrey House, location of, III. — 19. 
Torrey, Mrs. Mary, III. — 19. 
Treasury Building, Washington, I. 

—33; IV.— 23. 
Trenton, N. J., II. — 29. 
Tufts College, I.— 7, 11, 14, 32; II.— 

23; III. — 15. 
Tufts Family, The, in Somerville, 

I.— 21. 
Tufts Family, Descent of, I. — 21. 
Tufts Family, Real Estate of, I. 

Tufts, Aaron, son of Peter of Win- 
ter Hill, II. — 22. 
Tufts, Aaron, son of Peter of Milk 

Row, II. — 2G. 
Tufts, Hon. Aaron, son of Aaron, 

II.— 26. 
Tufts, Abby, III. — 22. 
Tufts, Abigail, daughter of Isaiah, 

I.— 23. 
Tufts, Abigail, daughter of Joseph, 

II.— 24. 
Tufts, Abijah, son of Timothy and 

Anne Adams, II. — 25. 
Tufts, Albert N., II. — 24. 
Tufts, Amos, son of Nathan, Sr., II. 

Tufts, Anne (Adams), II. — 21, 22. 
Tufts, Anne, daughter of Peter and 

wife of Isaac, II.— 22. 
Tufts, Asa, son of John and Eliza- 
beth, II.— 24. 
Tufts, Asa, son of Joseph, II.— 24. 
Tufts, Asa, son of Peter, II. — 24. 
Tufts, Asa, home of, III. — 21. 
Tufts. Benjamin, II. — 23. 
Tufts, Bernard, II. — 24. 
Tufts, Charles, II. — 21, 22. 
Tufts, Charles, home of, III.— 15. 
Tufts, Daniel, IT. — 22. 
Tufts, Edmund. Printer, sou of 

Joseph, L— 25; II.— 24; 111.— 21. 
Tufts. Elizabeth, wife of Ebenezer 

Smith, I.— 24. 

Tufts, Captain Francis, IV.— 22. 
Tufts, Hannah, daughter of lvtor, 

[I —22. 
Tufts, Isaac, II. — 22. 
Tufts, Isaac, son of Timothy and 

Anne Adams, II. — 25. 
Tufts, Isaiah, son of Nathaniel, I. — 

22, 23. 

Tufts, James, son of Peter, I. — 21. 
Tufts, James, of Medford, II. — 

23, 24. 

Tints, James W., son of Leonard, 

II.— 24. 
Tufts, Joel, son of Peter of Winter 

Hill, II.— 22. 
Tufts, John, of Charlestown and 

Maiden. I.— 21. 
Tufts. John 2nd, son of William, I. 

Tufts, John 2nd. son of Nathaniel, 

j 23. 

Tufts, John, son of Peter of Milk 

Row, 11. — 21. 
Tufts, John, son of Peter of Win- 
ter Hill, II.— 23. 
Tufts, John, Jr., son of John and 

Elizabeth, II.— 23. 
Tufts, Jonathan, of Medford, I. — 21. 
Tufts, Jonas, II. — 25. 
Tufts, Joseph, son of Peter of Milk 

ROW, II.— 21. 
Tufts, Joseph, son of Peter of Win- 
ter Hill, II. — 2 4. 
Tufts, Joseph, son of Timothy and 

Anne Adams, II. — 25. 
Tufts, Leonard, II. — 24. 
Tufts, Mary, daughter of 

Nathaniel, I. — 22, 23. 
Tufts, Mary, wife of John Stone. I. 

Tufts. Mary Adams, wife of 

Nathan, II. — 21. 
Tufts, Nathan, Sr., It. — 21. 
Tufts, Nathan, son of Nathan, Sr., 

II.— 21, 
Tufts, Nathan, nephew of Nathan. 

Jr., II.— 21. 
Tufts, Nathaniel, son of John. I. — 

'2 2 23 2 4. 
Tufts, ' Nathaniel. Jr.. son of 

Nathaniel and Mary Sprague. I. 

^> •_» 23 24. 

Tufts." Nathaniel, son of Isaiah. I. 

— 23. 
Tufts, Oliver. II.— 23. 24. 
Tufts, Persis, daughter of 

Natnaniel, I. — 22. 23. 
Tufts, Peter, I. — 21. 
Tufts, Peter, descendants of. I. — 24. 
Tufts, Peter, house of. I. — 24. 
Tufts'! Captain Peter, son of Peter, 

I. 21. 
Tufts. Peter of Milk Row. son of 

John, l. -2-2. 84; ll.— 25 
'Putts. Peter of Winter Hill. II. — 21, 

24, 25. 

Tufts, Peter, son , of Petri- and 

Anno \danis. IL— 22. 
Tufts, Peter. Jr., IL— 22, 23. 


Tufts, Samuel, son of Peter of Milk 

Row, II.— 26. 
Tufts, Samuel, Jr., II. — 22. 
Tufts, Sarah, daughter of Peter of 

Milk Row, II.— 21. 
Tufts, Sarah, daughter of Peter of 

Winter Hill, II.— 24, 25. 
Tufts, Tabitha (Binford), wife of 

James, II. — 24. 
Tufts, Thomas, son of Peter and 

Anne Adams, II.— 22, 24. 
Tufts, Timothy, son of Peter of 

Milk Row, II.— 25. 
Tufts, Timothy, Jr., son of Timothy 

and Anne Adams, II. — 25. 
Tufts, Timothy, son of Timothy, 

Jr., II.— 25. 
Tufts, Timothy, son of Isaac, II. 

Tufts, William, son of Nathaniel, I. 

22 23 

Tufts, 'William, 1842, III.— 21. 
Tufts, William Sumner, son of Asa, 

II.— 24. 
Union Square, I.— 22, 23; III.— 17. 
Unitarian Church, First, I. — 11, 13; 

III.— 17. 
Universalist Church, First, Cross 

Street, III.— 17. 
Ursuline Convent, The, II.— 13, 14; 

III.— 21. 
Usher, Lieutenant Governor, IV. 

United States Ordnance Property, 

I.— 21. 
United States Infantry, 2nd, I.— 34. 
Vaughan Road, II. — 38. 
Vikings, The, I.— 21. 
Vinal Family, The, I.— 24. 
Walker, Major Timothy, Estate of, 

III.— 20. 
Walnut Hill, II.— 21, 23. 
Walnut Hill Schoolhouse, location 

of, III.— 20. 
Walnut Street, I.— 24; III.— 14, 20. 
Walpole, N. H., II.— 26. 
Wardell, William W., IV. — 30. 
Warren, General, II. — 29. 
Warren Institution for Savings, IV. 

Warrenton, Va., II. — 37. 
Washburn, David, II.— 16, 18. 
Washburn, Governor, of Maine, I. 

Washington, D. C, I.— 33, 36; II.— 

37, 38; III.— 24; IV.— 23, 25, 26. 
Washington, General, II. — 29. 
Washington Street, I.— 22; XL— 23, 

26: III.— 12, 14, 15; IV.— 22. 
Washington Street, Charlestown, 

IV— 14. 

"Ways, The," Mystic River, IV— 9. 
Webster Avenue, I. — 22; III. — 17. 
Webster, Daniel, IV. — 15, 16. 
Welch, Samuel, house of, III.— 22. 
Weldori R. R., IV.— 25. 
Wellington Bridge, IV.— 9. 
Weslev Square, in.— 18. 
West Boston Bridge, 1793, II. — 9. 
West Cambridge lane. III. — 20. 
West, Captain George W., I. — 34. 

35; III. — 24, 25; IV.— 30. 
West, Mrs. George, I. — 35. 
West Somerville, 11. — 17; III. — 

7, 17. 
West Somerville in 1853, III.— 18. 
Wheeler Lot, The, III.— 13. 
White Plains, II. — 29. 
White, Thomas, HI. — 10. 
Whittemore, Harriett, IV. — 13. 
Whittier, John G, I. — IS. 
Wick* Awake Magazine, The, I. — 18. 
Wilderness, Battle of, I. — 37, 38; 

11. -37. 
Wilderness Campaign, The, II. — 37. 
Wildridge's Hill, I.— 23. 
William the Conqueror, IV. — 13. 
Willis, Dr., HI. — 21. 
Willis. N. Parker. k— 18. 
Willow Avenue, Somerville, II. — 25; 

III.— 14. 
Wilmington, Mass., IV. — 13. 
Winchester, Va., I. — 36. 
"Winter Hill, II.— 10, 21, 22, 23, 29; 

III.— 7. 
Winter Hill Road, II.— 9, 13; III.— 

19, 22. 
Winter Hill Station, III.— 13. 
Winl lirop, John, birth of, IV. — 9. 
Winthrop, John, farm of, IV. — 9, 10. 
Winthrop, Governor, III. — 14; IV. 

Winthrop, John, Jr., IV. — 10. 
Woburn, IV.— 21. 

Wolf's Run Shoals, I. — 33; III.— 23. 
Wood, Amelia II.. III.— 15. 
Wood, Amelia, home of, III. — 15. 
Wood. Josiah. Sr., III.— 10. 
Woodbridge, Benjamin, IV.— 13. 
Woodbury, Elizabeth Bowen, II. 

Woodburv, Thomas S., home of, III. 

— 20. 
Woods Family, The, II.— 25. 
Wool, Major General John E., I. — 

34, 37; HI.— hi 
Wyman Place, H.— 20. 
Yellow House. .The. 111. — 19. 
York. England, [V.— IS. 
Yorktown, Va.. IV.— 30. 
Youth's Companion, The, L--14. 




April, 1903 


January, 1904 

Published by 


Somerville, Mass. 

Table ©f contents 

VOL. II., NO. 1. 


Literary Men and Women of Somerville, I David Lee Maulsby 1 

The Mallet Family Florence E. Carr 10 

The Charlestown School in the 17th Century, 1. 

Frank Mortimer Havves 15 

Report of the Necrology Committee for 190*J, 22 

William and George W. Ayers Captain Martin Binney 22 

VOL. II., NO. 2. 

Literary Men and Women of Somervilie, II David Lee Maulsby '2i> 

The Charlestown School in the 17th Century, II. 

Frank Mortimer Hawes 32 

Neighborhood Sketch No. 6 John F. Ayer 12 

Washington Street As It Was. Mrs, O. S. Knapp 46 

VOL. II., NO. 3. 
Historical Sketch of the Old Middlesex Canal 

Herbert Pierce Yeaton 49 

Charlestown Schools in the 18th Century Frank Mortimer Hawes 58 

Literary Men and Women of Somervilie, III David Lee Maulsby 06 

VOL. II., NO. 4. 

Dedication of Prospect Hill Park and Memorial Tower 73 

Israel Putnam and Prospect Hill. Rev. A. P. Putnam, D. D. 85 

Obituary Notices : Hon. Austin Belknap*..'. 100 

Dr. Horace Oarr White 101 

M. Agnes Hunt 103 

Mary M, McKay t 104 

Index 106 


The Old Powder House, No. I. Frontispiece 

Portrait of Professor David Lee Maulsby, No. \l Frontispiece 

Middlesex Canal and Mediord Turnpike. Hums of 

the Convent in the Distance, No. Ill Frontispiece 

Prospect Hill Tower, No. IV Frontispiece 

Portraits of Governor John L. Bates, Hon. Fdward Glines, 

John F. Ayer, Rev. J. Vanor Carton. No. IV Opposite Page 70 

Raising of the Flag on Prospect Hill, No. IV. Opposite Page 85 











M. 1L-- 




J &sBSm 

*■••■ £ '■■' 

W3Btefiw.^W| v »yy '*^^~in 

i-^^Li ^iJHHIH 





Vol.. II. APRIL, J903. No. i 


By David Lee Maulsby.* 

A FTER accepting the invitation of the Somerville Historical 
f\ Society to address it upon the men and women of this 
city who have been writers, I found it necessary to draw 
some lines of limitation about the subject. To -treat, even in- 
adequately, all of our fellow-citizens that have issued their 
thoughts in print would be a greater undertaking than a single 
hour could see completed. It has seemed wise, therefore, to 
mark a boundary of demarcation between the dead and the liv- 
ing, and to confine this paper to those Somerville authors that 
are no longer our flesh-and-blood companions. Thus we shall 
avoid the embarrassment of selection among present-day writers, 
and shall also have a subject that is clearly defined, and of mod- 
erate extent. 

One further limitation has seemed proper. There are two 
persons of distinction who have lived in Somerville, but who can 
hardly be included among her literary men. I mean Governor 
Winthrop and Edward Everett. Neither is literary, in the strict- 
est sense of the word, though both have left books behind them. 
And in any event their connection with the city seems so remote 
or so accidental that they may well be dismissed from a paper of 
this kind, after mere mention. 

There is another group of men who stand upon the threshold 

*The following persons have rendered Valuable help to the writer in 
the preparation of this paper : Mrs. John F, Ayer, Mr. Edwin M. Bacon, 
Miss Mary Bacon, Mr. Charles I). Elliot, Mr, Sam Walter Foss, Mrs. Mae 
D. Frazar, Mrs. Barbara Galpin, Mr. J. O. Hayden, Mrs. George T. Knight, 
Rev. W. H. Pierson, Mr. L. B. Pillsbury, Mrs. Lucy B. Ransom, Rev. 
Anson Titus, Miss Anna P. Vinal. 




of literary work, in having published one or more books, but who 
fail of entrance into the class we are to consider by reason of the 
more practical character of their writing. Dr. Luther V. Bell is 
an example of this class, with his book upon ''The Ventilation of 
Schoolhouses. ,, Another is Colonel Herbert E. Hill, a Ver- 
monter, who fought in the Civil War, and afterward removed to 
Somerville, where he resided until his death in 1892. It was he 
who is responsible for the frowning cannon upon Central Hill. 
Again Colonel Hill showed his generosity and patriotism b\ 
the two monuments which he erected on Virginia battlefields, one 
of them bearing the inscription : "Committed to the care of those 
once a brave foe, now our generous friends." Colonel Hill has 
left two addresses on patriotic and historical subjects. Then 
there is the ex-librarian, John S. Hayes, whose noble work in 
making our public library more efficient is gratefully remem- 
bered. Mr. Hayes gave two notable addresses, one on "The 
Public Library and the State," the other containing valuable his- 
torical information, and delivered at the laying of the corner- 
stone of the Winter-hill Congregational church. The work of 
these three men is worthy of cordial appreciation, and is semi- 
literary in character. If more detailed consideration is given to 
the names that are to follow, there is no derogation of the value 
of other sorts of service, only the recognition of literature as in 
some sense detached from immediately practical ends, — as in a 
measure itself constituting its own end. 

Among the literary men of Somerville, Ceneral Douglas 
Frazar combines the distinction of being both man of affairs and 
author. His family goes back to William Bradford through his 
mother, and to John Alden through his father. Although pre- 
pared for Harvard, Mr. Frazar chose to go to sea. His father's 
desire took him to Paris to study tire French language, and the 
Civil War, when it came, drew him into its service; but the main 
currents of his being set toward the ocean, and it was only 
through special inducements that his employment, especially in 
his latter years, was ashore. He was constantly reading and 
writing, even on board ship. When in business in China, he 
was correspondent of the Boston Traveler. After his marriage 


he wrote for the Youth's Companion and Harper's, not to speak 
in detail of his several lectures and translations. 

Mr. Frazar's first book was on "Practical Boat Sailing." 
The value of this standard treatise is proved by its reappear- 
ance in French, German, and Spanish. So much for the 
practical side. "Perseverance Island" (1884) is a work of juve- 
nile fiction, popular in England, as well as in America. This 
book out-Crusoes Crusoe. Its hero is cast upon one of the un- 
known islands of the Pacific, with no friendly well-stored wreck 
at hand. With almost nothing but his hands and his scientific 
knowledge, the lonely sailor makes tools and house, gunpowder, 
bricks, a water wheel, a blast-furnace, even a sub-marine boat 
and a flying machine. Rich in real estate and in discovered gold, 
this modern Selkirk is properly rescued at last. "The Log of the 
Maryland" (1890), in the guise of fiction, is in effect an account 
of one of Captain Frazar's own voyages. The routine and ad- 
ventures of a long ocean journey are faithfully told. The sea- 
fight with Chinese pirates, with which the story closes, bristles 
with excitement. 

Perhaps Mr. Frazar's books arc as remarkable for .their va- 
ried knowledge as for any one quality, though they are interest- 
ing, as well. In his active life as a sailor, and in his excursions 
into French and English literature, he gathered the facts and the 
readiness of expression which stood him in good stead as an 

An earlier writer is Isaac F. Shepard, who lived in Somer- 
ville and Cambridge. He published much. Besides being 
editor of the Christian Souvenir, and contributing to the Chris- 
tian Examiner, the list of his writings includes: a poem on "The 
Seventy-first Anniversary of Leicester Academy, Massachusetts," 
August 7, 1835 ; a poem on "The Will of God," printed about 
1837; a volume of poems, "Pebbles From Castalia," 18-10; a 
"Fourth-of-July Address," given in West Killingly, Conn., 185G. 

Mr. Shepard appears to have been a fluent writer of English 
His tale, "Lewis Benton," published in 1 S 12, shows considerable 
facility of expression. It is a temperance story, picturing the 
deterioration of a well-meaning and able man through a failure 


to abstain entirely from the use of liquor. The little volume in 
which this tale appears is a quaint example of book-making 1 two 
generations ago. The wood-cuts are especially noteworthy in 
their crude simplicity, and suggest comparison with the consum- 
mate art of our contemporary magazines. 

Not yet come into the world when this little book was pub- 
lished, our next author gives the impression of having been a 
young man when he left the world. Lewis Cass Flanagan was 
born in Somerville in 1850, and died at North Weymouth in 1000. 
He was graduated from the Franklin grammar school. Later, 
though practicing pharmacy, lie show eel much interest in parlia- 
mentary law, conducting a class in this subject at the Young 
Men's Christian Association of Boston. Fie was also a student 
of forestry. Early in life he manifested a taste for literary com- 
position, publishing many articles in prose and poetry in the 
Cambridge and Somerville papers. 

Mr. Flanagan attended the Unitarian church in this city, and 
wrote a number of prose essays for the meetings of the Unity 
Club. Selections from his writings were published after his 
death, under the title, "Essays in Poetry and Prose/' Among 
the prose essays is one containing curious information on "Some 
Minor Poets of America/' Another treats at length the career 
of Miss Kemble, the actor. A third describes the gray pine of 
New England. But the most original of the printed prose writ- 
ings are the burlesque fables. These are whimsical in character, 
and point a moral, sometimes severe, as often gay. One of the 
very shortest is as follows:— 


"An Ant, meeting an Elephant, exclaimed : 'Sirrah ! fellow, 
one of us must turn out.' 'One of us must indeed turn out/ 
' replied the Elephant, as he lifted his foot to advance. Where- 
upon the Ant ran nimbly to one side, and thus escaped crushing. 

" T find it best to humor these characters,' said the Ant to 
herself, as the Elephant passed by ; and then, picking up her bur- 
den, she regained the highway and continued on her journey. 

"Impudence with discretion does fairly well." 


Among the poems is a plaintive song of "The Wild Rose/' 
Almost the only poem of a sentimental cast celebrates an experi- 
ence while the author was journeying homeward from California 
by way of the Isthmus of Panama. He had met a fair stranger 
on board ship, but now the parting must come. Surely there is 
a touch of Whittier in the following lines: — 

"And that was all. The dream is o'er; 
No word from lip or pen ; 
Her smiling eyes I'll see no more, 
Nor hear her voice again. 

"Sometimes the past will come to me 
On memory's grateful tide; 
I sail again the western sea, 
And she is by my side. 

"The day has melted like a dream 
Beyond the billow's crest, 
And softly now the moonbeams stream 
Across the ocean's breast. 

"The night wind sounds a soothing dirge 
Around the corded poles, 
And, stretching far, the phosphor surge 
In chastened splendor rolls.' . . . 

"Back from the swiftly gliding hull 
There gleams a pathway white, 
O'er which through all the day the gull 
Has winged his silen); flight. 

"Now with the scene comes gently forth 
The music from her mouth ; 
T is gone, and I am in the North, 
And she is in the South." 

The column of Pencillings in the Somerville Journal has 
long attracted the attention of exchange editors throughout the 
country. Particularly in the South and West, papers make lib- 
eral use of the mingled fun and wisdom to be found in this 


treasury. The originator of Pencillings was George Russell 
Jackson, who in 1877, after twelve years of newspaper experience, 
began to write for the Journal. He conducted the department 
until 1884, meanwhile contributing to the paper comical police 
reports, which were a feature of interest. Air. Hayden speaks of 
Mr. Jackson as a born humorist, the peer of any in his native 
power. He not only wrote fun by the yard, but he overflowed 
with it in private conversation. 

Such writing has an evanescent quality, making quotation 
hazardous. But the following quatrains are not untimely: — 

"When icy blasts come from the pole, 
And redden nose and chin, 
Then happy is the man whose coal 
Is safely in the bin. 

"On second thoughts; when from the pole 
Come blasts that chill us through, 
Then happy is the man whose coal 
Is in and paid for, too." 

Not infrequently Mr. Jackson uttered a wise maxim in the 
midst of his jokes, as: "The man who always says what he thinks 
should think well what he says." Again, "The man who knows 
that he doesn't know everything, knows something." So said 

Mr. Jackson contributed to the Boston Courier, the Boston 
Commercial Bulletin, the New York Independent, and the At- 
lantic Monthly. He wrote many songs, and was the author of a 
popular opera-cantata, called "The Cranberry Pickers." He 
died December 9, 1898, aged fifty-eight years. 

As a means of preparing for an easy transition a little later 
from the men to the women writers of Somerville, let us speak 
of the Munroe family. Edwin Munroe, of Scotch descent, mar- 
ried Eliza (?) Fowle, of Lexington. Three children of these 
parents, a brother and two sisters, have intimate relation with the 
literary history of Somerville. These are Edwin Munroe, who 
married Nancy Thorning, Eliza Ann Munroe, who married Rev. 
Henry Bacon, and Martha Fowle Munroe, who married Rev. El- 


bridge Gerry Brooks. The son of the last-named marriage is 
known to all residents of Somerville, and to many throughout the 

In industry and consequent fruitfulness, it is not too much to 
say that Elbridge Streeter Brooks is the leading writer among 
those who, in life and death, have been identified with the city of 
Somerville. He has written biography, fiction, and history, to 
the number of more than forty volumes. His first book was a 
biography of Rev. Elbridge Gerry Brooks, dedicated to the 
author's mother, — "whose loyal and loving aid made more effec- 
tive the life-work of my father." Many of the volumes by Mr. 
Brooks have attained a wide popularity, and so have met his 
cherished wish, that his works in the public library might show, 
in their well-worn binding, the sign that they had been often and 
vigorously handled. The kind of writing in which Mr. Brooks 
excels is a mingling of historic fact with playful imagination. 
Take, for example, "The Century Book of Famous Americans," 
of which the Somerville library owns four copies, all bearing the 
marks of use. What could be more fascinating to the young 
people, for whom primarily this book was written, than to be 
transported from Boston to Ouincy and Plymouth, from New 
York to Philadelphia, then to Virginia and Kentucky, thence 
hurried to the early homes of Lincoln and of Grant, regaled all 
along the way with bits of story about the men who have made 
these places famous? Here is no dull guide-book or chart of 
dates and battles, but a lively conversation among an uncle and 
the five boys and girls he is piloting, — talk rendered vivid and 
readable by the running question and commentary of these young 
Americans, in the vital and unstudied language of the present 
day. No wonder the book is issued under the auspices of the 
National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution. 
No wonder twenty thousand copies were sold in three months 
after publication. There surely is no easier, because no more 
interesting, way in which to become acquainted with the leading 
facts in our country's history. 

Into the so-called fiction written by Mr. Brooks historic fact 
enters almost unawares, just as in books whose main interest is 


historical there occurs a distinct imaginative element. One book, 
"Wood Cove Island," is a stirring story of a contest between two 
opposing factions, the good boys and girls on one side, and the 
bad boys on the other, to gain and keep possession of a small 
island, made worth fighting for. by the presence of an old scow, 
altered into a feudal castle by rude carpentry and youthful 
imagination. On this fictional background appear Professor 
Longfellow of Harvard, as a summer visitor, and his friend 
Charles Sumner, both of whom advise the combatants, without 
interfering with them. Any boy should like this book. Again, 
read "Historic Girls," or "Historic Boys," if you would get a 
vivid series of true pictures of widely separated ages, with differ- 
ing customs, but the same child-nature persisting through all. 
Or dip into "Storied Holidays" to find some scene of childhood, 
grave or gay, set in the festivities of Christmas, St. Valentine's 
Day, or Midsummer Eve. 

Throughout the works of Mr. Brooks there is earnest effort 
to make the historic parts correct as to fact, and also as to acces- 
sories of costume, architecture, and language. There is danger, 
intrinsic in such undertaking, that the learning shall appear arti- 
ficial and pedantic. But the author recognizes this hazard, and, 
while not "writing down" to his young readers, provides against 
it. It would be difficult to find a better blending of dry events 
and ever-living human nature than in some of his sketches. It 
is their truth to history that makes the writings of Mr. Brooks 
respected by older readers, who, as well as the young, are at 
the same time attracted and held by the play of a cheerful and 
unwaning fancy. 

Another member of the Munroe household will introduce us 
to our women writers, the second main division of the subject. 
.Mrs. E. A. Bacon-Lathrop came to Somerville from Lexington 
in childhood. She married a Universalist minister, — Rev. Henry 
Bacon, — who was the first editor of the Universalist and Ladies' 
Repository, in 183?. On his death in 1856, his wife at once took 
up the editorial work that her husband laid down, and from July, 
1856, until July, I860, she ably conducted the magazine along 
religious lines. On the publisher's desire to lender the Re- 


pository of greater secular interest, Mrs. Bacon resigned her 
editorship, although her occasional contributions to the magazine 
continued. The Repository contains many examples of verse 
from the pen of Mrs. Bacon, and a few examples of her prose. 
We may perhaps best say that the Repository itself is the monu- 
ment of her labors. But through life her pen was busy. As a 
child, she made experiments in composition. When her hus- 
band died, Mrs. Bacon published an extended "Memoir" of him; 
also she contributed to The Rose of Sharon, an annual, in the 
fashion of those days, with miscellaneous contents and steel en- 
gravings. Her letters, written from abroad in 1867, are de- 
scribed as very entertaining. A little book, called "Only a Keep- 
sake," privately printed during her life, contains some of her 
poems. Here are a few lines about April : — 

"Life! life! 't is singing in the rills 

And piping in the meadows, 
'T is bursting from the gray old trees 

That cast their ghostly shadows. 
The rose's stem is flushed with red, 

With green is streaked the willow, 
And green the little grasses shoot 

Where lay the snowy pillow." 

And here are a few on a more intimate subject — her son, go- 
ing to the war : — 

"He stands before me tall and fair, 
The sunlight dancing on his hair, 
His stalwart arm to me he shows, 
His broad breast heaves with manly throes. 

"Was it for this I gladdened so 


To see him up from boyhood grow 
For this I read him many a tale 
Of brave old warriors clad in mail?" 

This son, Henry, was wounded in the second battle of Bull 
Run, and, being discharged from the army, devoted himself tc 
art abroad. 


Mrs. Bacon was married to Rev. Thomas L. Lathrop, a Uni- 
tarian minister, in 1862. She died April 7, 1900, shortly after 
the death of her second husband. Those who knew her say that 
she was a gentlewoman of the old school, in the best sense of the 
term. A small oil painting by her son Henry shows her with re- 
fined and gentle face, her dark hair crowned with a small cap, 
sitting with hands quietly folded, as if in a habitual attitude of 

[To be continued.] 


By Florence E. Carr. 

THERE are many people in the United States to-day who 
bear the name of Mallet, and they are undoubtedly the de- 
scendants of those Mallets who were Huguenot refugees, 
and who came to this country at the time of the Revocation in 
France, or even earlier. They were of a rich and powerful family 
of Normandy in the early history of France, and were early inter- 
ested in the Reformation. The title is still borne by the head of 
the family in France, viz., the Marquis Malet de Graville, and 
the name of Mallet is one still distinguished in France and 
America in art and science. Baird, the historian, says: "Charles, 
Duke of Orleans, third and favorite son of Francis I., of France, 
may have had sincere predilections for Protestantism. At least, 
it is barely possible that the very remarkable instructions given 
to his secretary, Antoine de Mallet, when, on the eighth of Sep- 
tember, 1543, Charles sent him to the Elector of Saxony and the 
Landgrave of Hesse, Protestants, were something besides mere 
diplomatic intrigues to secure for his father's projects the support 
of these princes. Lefevre, a great Protestant, was Charles' tutor, 
and a friend of Mallet." 

This Mallet must have been a skilled diplomat and an orator 
to have pleaded his cause before foreign rulers. Then there was 
Paul Henri Mallet, born in Geneva of refugee parents. He be- 
came famous for his writings on the history of Denmark and 
Sweden, at whose courts he lived tor a time. History mentions 




many more of these Mallets of whom we have not the space to 

That the Mallets were early subjected to severe persecution 
because of their devotion to the cause is amply proved by various 
records, and while there is no actual proof that those who fled to 
this country were of the same family, there is every reason to be- 
lieve that they were. The custom in those days of re-naming 
children for the elders of the family makes it difficult to trace a 
direct line, but it also goes to prove in this instance a kinship, 
since all of the Mallet emigrants to this country bear the same 
Christian names. There were several Mallets who fled to 
America about the same time and settled in different localities. 
We are told that David Mallet, who, with his five sons, held a 
position of prominence in the army of Louis XIV., fled to Eng- 
land, and died there in 1691. One son was broken on the wheel, 
another established himself as a physician in Yorkshire, Eng. 
A third went to Germany, and we hear of a David Mallet, of 
Rouen, and later hat manufacturer in Berlin in 1685, who was 
probably one of these five sons. The fourth son, John', came to 
America, bringing with him a brother and a nephew named Peter. 
This John was a ship carpenter, so tradition says, and probably 
escaped from Lyons, France. He was a man of considerable 
wealth, and succeeded in bringing some of it with him. He first 
came to North Carolina, and made several return voyages (prob- 
ably secretly) to France. During one of his return trips his wife 
and child were lost at sea. He then married his servant, Jo- 
hannah Larion, a woman said to be very beautiful ; to them were 
born several children. This couple finally settled in Fairfield, 
Conn., and died at a ripe old age, leaving many descendants and 
much property. The sons and daughters of families in those 
days were more numerous than at the present time, and there is 
no doubt that some of this John's descendants remained in North 
Carolina, and finally settled in Virginia, since the name of Mallet 
is among those of the early settlers of Manakin, Va. 

Charles Weiss, who was assisted in his work of compiling a 
history of Huguenots in France and America by a Charles Mallet, 
tells of the contraband trade established by the refugees, which 


constituted a loss for France. They caused to be sent, by corre- 
spondents whom they had at Lyons and in the principal towns of 
Dauphiny, articles of daily consumption. In the space of two 
years the three brothers, Jean, Jacques, and Louis Mallet, thus 
succeeded in drawing from the kingdom manufactured articles to 
the value of more than a million livres. 

Among the Huguenots who settled in Oxford, Mass., was 
Jean Mallet, in whom we of Somerville are more particularly in- 
terested. Bolbee, France, in the province of Normandy, was be- 
lieved to be the home of this man. He sailed from England to- 
gether with thirty families in 1085 or '86. Gabriel Bernon, a man 
of considerable wealth and a Huguenot of some notability, was 
the original owner of some 25,000 acres in what is now a part of 
the town of Oxford, having received a grant of the same by 
purchase from Governor Dudley. This little company first 
landed at Fort Hill, Boston, and were cared for by friends, and 
probably Jean and his children were received by relatives, as 
there were then Mallets living in Boston. And just here I would 
like to say that I believe this Jean to have been a brother of the 
David before mentioned, who fled to England. This little com- 
pany of Huguenots, among whom we find the names of Faneuil, 
Bowdoin, Sigourney, etc., which have since become so familiar 
in the history of old Boston, proceeded to Oxford and established 
a settlement which bid fair to become a flourishing, prosperous 
town. After a few years, however, the Indians, who had been 
represented as peaceful, became troublesome, and at length a 
massacre took place. There was also some trouble over the title 
deeds, which never became straightened, and the families, becom- 
ing disheartened, finally returned, some to Boston and others to 
New Rochelle, N. Y. Traces of these French homes are still to 
be seen in the town of Oxford, but, unfortunately, the church 
records of that time are lost. The descendants of Gabriel Ber- 
non, however, still have many papers relating to that time, and in 
the list appended to one of those papers we find the name of Jean 
Mallet, Ancien or Elder of the church, jean Mallet returned to 
Boston in 1696, and probably practiced his trade of shipwright. 
He had at this time six children, all of whom were grown and had 


escaped with him from France. There is no record of the mother 
of these children, and doubtless she died either in France or soon 
after reaching America. In .1.702 we find that Jean purchased 
ten acres of land in Somerville of Jonathan Fosket, and proceeded 
to erect the old mill now known as the Powder House. 

It is commonly believed that at this time occurred the mar- 
riage of Jean Mallet and Jane Lyrion, and that she died, and in 
1712 he married Ann Mico. This I believe to be a mistake. Old 
Jean was then about sixty years old, and had evidently seen many 
hardships in life. Everything points to the fact that he built the 
mill to establish his two sons. Andrew and Louis, in business, 
they having been brought Up as millers. His son John, evi- 
dently the eldest, and whom he mentions in his will as having 
started in life, I believe to have been that John who was a shop- 
keeper in Boston, and whose will was probated in Boston in 1711, 
and that he is the John who married Jane Lyrion, Ann Mico, and 
later Elizabeth Makerwhit, who survived him. 

I have mentioned a John Mallet who married Johannah 
Larion in Fairfield, Conn. This Johannah Larion had a brother 
Louis, who was a refugee and settled in Milford, Conn. • He be- 
came very wealthy, and, dying at a good old age, left a generous 
bequest to the French church in Boston, and also to the one at 
New Rochelle, N. Y. I believe Jane Lyrion, who married John 
Mallet, of Boston, to have been a younger sister of Louis and 
Johannah, and that her husband was a cousin of the Fairfield 

A homestead was built near the old mill, and old Jean prob- 
ably removed here with his son Andrew and daughters Mary and 
Elizabeth. His son Matthew (who is also mentioned as being of 
Stratford, Conn., thus further proving kinship with the Connec- 
ticut branch) married at Cambridge in 1703 Abigail Linn. For 
some time they lived at the old mill, the family still retaining their 
interest in the French church in Boston, of which Jean still served 
as elder. This church was held in the Latin schoolhouse situated 
on School street, on the site now covered by a portion of King's 
Chapel, and down to the statue of Franklin in front of the city 
hall. Here the French Protestants worshipped for about thirty 


years, when they were allowed to build a church of their own on 
the site now occupied by the School-street savings bank. 

In 1709 occurred a break in the family at the old mill, and 
daughter Mary married Daniel Blodget, of Woburn. About this 
time son Louis removed to Somerville and married Margaret 
Fosdick. Louis seems to have alternated between Somerville 
and Boston, sometimes living in one town, and then in the other. 
In 1715 son Andrew married Martha Morris, of Cambridge, and 
brought his bride home to the old mill, and finally Elizabeth, the 
last of the hock, was married in the old French church, in 1719, 
tc Daniel Vieaux. 

In 1720 old Jean made his will, leaving legacies to his daugh- 
ters and to his sons John and Matthew, and to his sons Andrew 
and Louis the homestead and the now famous mill. Two years 
after he died, at the age of seventy-eight years, and is buried in 
the old cemetery at Charlestown. Louis soon sold his share of 
the homestead and mill to Andrew, who continued to live on the 
estate until his death in 1743. It is this son of old Jean who 
numbers the most numerous descendants of the Charlestown 
Mallets. His children, numbering eight, all grew up and mar- 
ried, as follows: Andrew married twice, and died before his 
father. John married Martha Wilson, and removed to Topsham, 
Me., where his descendants still live, some of whom bore a noble 
part in the Revolutionary War. Martha married Shadrach Ire- 
land. Elizabeth married Ephraim Mallet, probably her cousin. 
Michael married Martha Robinson. To him was left the bulk 
of his father's property, subject to a life interest held by his 
mother. In 1747 he sold the old mill to William Foye, treasurer 
of the Bay State Colony, and here was stored the powder belong- 
ing to the colony. Michael was guardian for his young brother 
Isaac and his sisters Mary and Phoebe, minor children at the time 
of their father's death. Isaac in after years became very wealthy, 
and owned considerable land in Charlestown. He was a black- 
smith and schoolmaster at the Neck, selectman, etc. A great 
«kal ol his property was destroyed at the burning of Charlestown 
denag the battle of Bunker Hill, and he claimed damages to the 
atntwin o{ $3,200, which, of course, he never received. The sons 


of Ephraim and Elizabeth Mallet served faithfully in the Revo- 
lution, and we find Ephraim Mallet, aged eighteen years, among 
the little garrison on Prospect Hill. Afterward he re-enlisted at 
Fishkill, N. Y., and there are various records of his service in the 
archives of the State House in Boston. 

The name of Mallet, once so common in this locality, is now 
extinct, and all that remains to mark the record of their lives are 
a few old gravestones in the ancient cemetery at Charlestown, and 
various wills and deeds in the Registry offices of Middlesex 
county. Much of story and romance is hidden between the lines 
of these old records, and in imagination one can call up vivid pic- 
tures of life in the old colonial days while poring over these old 


By Frank Mortimer Hawes. 

IN presenting this account of the first school of Charlestown, we 
trust that the time given to musty old records has not been 
spent unprofitably. If the story awaken in the reader's 
mind an interest commensurate with that which held us to the 
task, our labors will be amply rewarded. 

Although settled a year or more previous, Charlestown was 
incorporated — to use the date in our Court Manual — August 23, 
1630. The bounds of the town had no definite limits, but we 
learn that, March 3, 1636, they extended "eight miles into the 
country, from the meeting house." In September, 1642, a part 
of Charlestown was set off and incorporated as the town of 
Woburn, and May 2, 1649, the indefinitely designated "Mistick 
Side" became the town of Maiden. The territory that remained 
extended as far as the bounds of Reading, and included (not to 
mention more remote districts) besides "the peninsula," a large 
part of Medford, portions of Cambridge and Arlington, and the 
whole of Somerville. This was, practically, the Charlestown of 
the seventeenth and a part of the eighteenth century, as there was 
no further diminution of territory until 1725, when Stoneham was 
made a township. 


Our story begins, as far as the records are concerned, June 
3, 1636, when "Mr. William Witherell was agreed with to keepe 
a schoole for a twelve month, to begin the 8 of the VI. month, 
& to have £40 for this yeare/' 

Frothingham, in his History (page 65), makes this comment: 
"This simple record is evidence of one of the most honorable 
facts of the time, namely, that a public school, and, judging from 
the salary, a free school, at least for this twelve-month, was thus 
early established here, and on the principle of voluntary taxation. 
It may be worth while to remember that this date is eleven years 
prior to the so often quoted law of Massachusetts, compelling 
towns to maintain schools." 

A brief word on this first-named school teacher of Charles- 
town will not be amiss. Rev. William Witherell (the name ad- 
mits of various spellings) came from Maidstone, Kent, Eng., in 
1635, under certificate from the mayor of that place, where he 
had been schoolmaster. He was bred at Corpus Christi, Cam- 
bridge, took his degree of A. B. in 1623, and his master's degree 
in 1626. In the ship "Hercules/' which sailed from Sandwich, 
there came with Mr. Witherell his wife, three children, and a 
servant. Savage adds that, after preaching in Duxbury, he be- 
came the minister of the second parish of Scituate in 1645, that 
several children were born to him in this country, and that he 
died April 9, 1684. A recent genealogical note in the Boston 
Evening Transcript gives his age as twenty-five in 1627, when he 
married in Canterbury, Eng., Mary Fisher. That he was for sev- 
eral years the schoolmaster of Charlestown appears from the fol- 
lowing: — 

"11: 12 mo. 1636. Mr. Wetherell was granted a House 
plott with his cellar, selling his other house and part of his 

"12: 12 mo. 1637. About Mr. Wetherell it was referred to 
Mr. Greene and Mr. Lerned to satlc Lis wages for the Yeare 
past in pt and pt to come & they chose Mr. Ralph Sprague for a 

"28: X mo. 1638. John Stratton was admitted a townsman 
& has liberty to buy Mr. Wetherell V, house." 


1641. Mr. Wethrall's name appears in a list of those to 
whom an assignment of "lott's" was made. 

In a general town meeting, 80: 11 mo. 1646, "it was agreed 
yt a Rate of £15 should be gathered of the Towne toward the 
Schole for this Yeare & the £5 yt Major Sedgwick is to pay this 
Year (for the Island) for the Schole, also the Towns pt of Mistick 
Ware for the Schole forever." Thus early we have mention of 
an income derived from rentals, bequests, etc., which were to 
grow into a very respectable school fund. From time to time we 
shall have occasion to refer to this. 

As far as we can now determine, the first mention of a 
schoolhouse was at a town meeting, held 1 : 11 mo. 1648 (or, new 
style, January 11, 1649), when it was agreed that the seven select- 
men should see about and order "a fitt place for a Schole house 
and it to bee sett up and built at the Towns Charge." The fol- 
lowing month it was voted "to lay out for the Towne use upon 
the Windmill Hill a place for a Schole house and a place for the 
Scholmaisters house, and Mr. Francis Willoughby & Mr. Robert 
Hale were desired to lay them out/' 

"1: 3 mo. 1650. It was agree by all ye Inhabitants' of the 
Towne that the Towne would allow unto a Scholmaister (to be 
agreed with by the officers) by a rate made to that end to make 
up the rent for Lovell's Island £20 by the year, besides the 
Schollers pay. Agreed that a Schole house and a Watch Tower 
be erected on Windmill Hill & to be paid by a general rate & 
that Mr. Francis Willoughby, Mr. Ralph Mowsall, Mr. William 
Stilson & Mr. Robert Hale are chosen to agree with a convenient 
number of Carpenters that the work be carried on as speedily & 
frugally as may be/' 

"3: X mo. 1651. The rate of the Towne gathered by the 
two constables Swett and Low den of £53 about the Scholhouse 
& meeting house is brought in & the most of it disbursed to 
workmen as appears by accounts." 

Frothingham (page 5) makes the comment that the church 
and the schoolhouse stood side by side quietly diffusing their 
beneficent influences. The poet Whittier, in the closing stanza 
of "Our State," expresses a similar idea: — 


"Nor heeds the sceptic's puny hands, 
While near her school the church-spire stands; 
Nor fears the blinded bigot's rule, 
While near her church-spire stands the school." 
It would seem that a procrastinating spirit, in the matter of 
providing school buildings, early displayed itself in this com- 
munity. The demand was an urgent one. The selectmen are 
given full power to choose a site and erect the structure. A 
month later two influential citizens are selected to help the 
Fathers of the town in their arduous task. More than a year 
passes, and nothing has been dune. The citizen committee is 
doubled, and the instructions, amounting almost to a command, 
urge that the work be done "speedily." A year and a half from 
this time, or three years lacking a month from its inception, the 
house is completed and the bills ate paid. 

As the sum mentioned (£53) included repairs on the meeting 
house, probably we never shall know the exact cost of Charles- 
town's first school building. 

Before we leave this subject, let us look at the picture that is 
presented from, another point of view. Two hundred and fifty 
years ago that one little Forge gleamed feebly down by Charles- 
town City square. The appliances, how crude! But the sparks 
struck from that rude anvil in the wilderness, struck in the white 
heat of conviction, have flashed and flown till every hill has been 
illumined with the brightness and every valley has become a 
shining track. Huge workshops, in brick and stone, have risen 
on every hand, but not enough to meet the demand, and the hun- 
dreds of anvils ringing, ever ringing, resound the larger life, the 
larger hope — and the forearm of the state is strengthened, ever 
strengthened. Listen to the ringing and the singing of the anvils 
as the sparks fly upward and the wise smith never tires! 

The next schoolmaster of whom we have* any mention was a 
Mr. Stow, who, G: 3 mo. 1651, "is to have what is due to ye 
Towne from ye Ware and the £5 which the major (Sedgwick) 
pays for Pellock's Island the last year 1650, also he is to regr. 
& take of such persons (as send there children now & then & not 
constantly) by the Weeke as he and they can agree." This was 



the Rev. Samuel Stow, a graduate of Harvard College in the 
class of 1645. He was the son of John and Elizabeth (Biggs) 
Stow, of Roxbury, and was born about 1622. In 1640, at 
Chelmsford, he married Hope, daughter of William Fletcher. 
Of their seven children, a son, John, was born in Charlestown 
June 16, 1650. As early as 167)3 he was the minister in Middle- 
town, Ct., and March 22, 1670, he and his two brothers were 
enumerated among the fifty-two householders and proprietors of 
that place. In 1681 he seems to have been settled in Si-msbury, 
Ct. Judge Sewall, in a letter dated November 16, 1705, writes 
that the Rev. Mr. Samuel Stow, of Middletown, went from thence 
to heaven upon the 8 May, 1704. 

"30: 3 mo. 1657. A town rate, amounting to £100, for va- 
rious purposes, includes an item of £7 Ho Mr. Morley, Schole- 
master' ; said rate is to be made out and collected of the Inhabi- 
tants by the Constables." Frothingham (page 155), under date 
1659, says that twenty acres in wood and three and one-half acres 
in commons were assigned to Mr. Morley. Wyman's History 
informs us that John Morley was the schoolmaster one year from 
April 2Q } 1652, and again also in 1657. He, with his- wife 
Constant (Starr), was admitted to the Charlestown church in 
1658. He is said to have been the son of Ralph Morley, of 
Braintree. His mother may have been the widow Catharine 
Morley "who sojourned thirty weeks with John Greene, of 
Charlestown, at two shillings and sixpence per week."' John 
Morley died January 24, 16G0-1, and in his will bequeathed his 
estate at Lucas and at Chesthunt Leyes, Hertford county, Eng., 
first to his wife, and secondly to his sister, Mrs. Ann Farmer. 
The will of the wife was probated in 1669*. 

In 1660 one thousand acres of land, in the wilderness, on the 
western side of Merrimack river, at a place commonly called b> 
the Indians Sodegonock, were laid out by order of the General 
Court of Massachusetts Colony, for the use of the town oi 
Charlestown. The rental of this tract of land helped to defray 
the annual expenses of the school. 

November 26, 1661, Mr. Ezekiel Cheever entered upon his 
labors in behalf of the Charlestown Grammar school. This 


worthy pedagogue of ye olden lime later won a deserved reputa- 
tion as head master of the Boston Latin School, which position 
he accepted immediately on leaving Charlestown, January (3, 
1671. Mr. Cheever was born in London January 25, 1614. He 
attended the famous Christ's Hospital School in 1626, and en- 
tered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in 1632-3. He came to 
this country in 1637, was teaching in New Haven in 1638, and in 
Ipswich from 1650 to the time of his appointment to Charles- 
town, where his salary was £30 per annum. An increase in salary 
seems to have been the cause of his going to Boston, for there he 
received twice that amount. Mr. Cheever died in Boston August 
21, 1708, at the advanced age of ninety-four. His connection 
with the Latin School continued thirty-seven years, and his 
labors as an instructor of youth covered nearly twice that period. 
Judge Sewall, in his diary, writes : "August 23, 1708, Mr. 
Cheever was buried from the schoolhouse." Dr. Cotton Mather 
preached the funeral sermon, which was printed and re-printed. 
His body was consigned to the Granary Burial Ground. The 
book with which Cheever's name, as a writer, is associated is 
"The Accidence/' It was probably written while he lived in 
New Haven. "It passed through no less than eighteen editions 
previous to the Revolution, and was used generally as an ele- 
mentary work. It has done mure to inspire young minds with 
a love of the Latin language than any other work of the kind 
since the first settlement of the country." Mr. Cheever was twice 
married, the second time, while living in Ipswich, to Ellen Lath- 
rop (November IS, 1651). When a resident of Charlestown, ac- 
cording to Wyman, his daughter Elizabeth married (1666) S. 
Goldthwait. There were other children, and his descendants at 
the present time would be hard to enumerate. 

There are not main- references to Ezekiel Cheever on the 
Charlestown records; most of them relate to the payment of his 
salary, which seems to have been furnished in small amounts, ac- 
cording to the condition of the town treasury. For example: 
"December 30, 1664. Paid to Mr. Ezekiel Cheever by order 
fifty shillings in current pay in full payment/'' 

The following reference to the school was during his admin- 



istration: "16: 12 mo. 1CC2. Mr. Thomas Gould and Mr. Solo- 
mon Phipps were appointed to run out the lines and bounds of a 
farm formerly laid out by Court order to maintain Charlestown 

"17: 12 mo. 1661. It was ordered that Mr. Solomon Phipps 
should furnish the schoolhouse with severall necessaries belong- 
ing to the same, and with a house or barn for the housing of the 
cowes and hay .... so as the said Solomon and Mr. Cheffer 
the school-master shall see litt & of necessity to be done & that 
the said Solomon shall be paid for his work according to the true 
value thereof." 

12: 11 mo. 1GG5 (church record). Reference is made to 
Mr. Cheever's scholars who are required to "sit orderly and con- 
stantly in the pews appointed for them together." 

"December 19, 1669. Appeared before the selectmen Mr. 
Cheever desiring a piece of ground or house plott might be 
granted him whereon to build a house for his family." 

Finally, and most interesting of all these entries, November 
3, 1666, Mr. Cheever presented the following petition to the se- 
lectmen (quoted by Frothingham, page 157) : — 

1. That they would take care the schoolhouse be speedily 
amended, because it is much out of repair. 

2. That they would take care that his yearly salary be paid, 
the constables being much behind with him. 

3. Putting them in mind of their promise at his first coming 
to town, viz., that no other schoolmaster should be suffered, or 
set up in the town so as he could teach the same, yet now Mr, 
Mansfield is suffered to teach and take away his pupils. 

This complaint of good Master Cheever would seem to be 
proof positive that the chief source of his income was not from 
the town treasury, but from the pockets of his patrons. 
' We like to think that at this early day there may have been an 
ambitious boy or two, fired by the zeal of this worthy pedagogue, 
who sturdily trudged twice a day across the Neck, from some 
newly-cleared farm in Somerville, to the little schoolhouse on 
Town Hill. 

[To be continued.] 



Somerville, April G, 1903. 

The society mourns the loss of four members by death dur- 
ing the past year: Mrs. Martha Perry Lowe, Martin L. Carr, 
Mrs. Ernest L. Loring, and Christopher E. Rymes. 

A tribute has already been paid to the memory of Mrs. Lowe 
and Mr. Carr. 

Mrs. Loring died February 8, 1003. She had been a mem- 
ber of the society four years. 

Mr. Rymes died March 11, 1903. He had been prominently 
identified with the affairs of this city and with many of its social 
and benevolent organizations during- a long period, serving as a 
member of both branches of the city government, and for many 
years as a member of the board of trustees of the Somerville 
Public Library, and a most valued member and president of the 
Somerville Water Board. In 1875 he represented this district 
in the Massachusetts Senate. He was a man of sterling integ- 
rity, and conscientious in the discharge of every public duty. 



By Captain Martin Binney. 
ILLIAM AYERS, of Somerville, was the eldest son of 

)hn and Sally (Page) Ayers, of Boston, Mass. Sally 
Ayers, his mother, subsequently married Joshua Bailey, 
who died before the war. Mrs. Bailey built the first house on 
Prescott street, Somerville, near Highland avenue. Her two 
sons, William and George W. Ayers, both enlisted at the out- 
break of the Civil War. William, the subject of this sketch, en- 
listed in the Somerville company, B, Fifth Regiment, in its ''100- 
day services.'" Lie was a faithful soldier until he was sunstruck 
at or near Little Washington Village, N. C. Pie was in several 
engagements and toilsome marches with his regiment, and was a 
"non compos mentis'' for many years, and committed suicide in 


1892 by hanging. William Aye is was a United States pensioner 
at $50 per month for several years before his death. He was a 
single man, never married. 

George W. Ayers was the second son of John Ayers and 
,Sally (Page) Ayers, of Boston. They had three children, Sallie 
D. Ayers, the eldest, who married Captain Martin Binney, the 
writer of this sketch, William Ayers, and George W. Ayers. 
Their two sons were both in the service during the Civil War. 
George W. Ayers enlisted for Somerville in Company D, 
Twenty-fourth Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteers. He was 
in several battles in the Army of the Potomac, and was at one 
time in Fernandina, Fla., and, being a cabinet-maker, he was de- 
tailed to make coffins. 

In one of the battles in which the regiment was engaged, 
George W. Ayers was taken prisoner, and was at Macon, Ga., and 
at Andersonville, where he suffered all the horrors of that prison 
pen. He was finally exchanged. The prisoners of war in this 
first exchange of prisoners were in a horrible condition, emaciated 
and starved. George W. Ayers died from starvation three days 
after his arrival at the Naval Academy grounds, Annapolis, Md., 
in 1863.^ The writer obtained leave of absence, and went to 
Camp Parole for the purpose of getting him a furlough, but 
found him dead. The bodies of George W. Ayers and William 
Ayers are in one grave, and a beautiful stone was erected to their 
memory by their sister, Sullie (Ayers) Binney. 

Officers of $omert>ille Ijistorical Society. 



First Vice-President, 

Second Vice-President 

Third Vice-President, 

Recording Secretary, 

Corresponding Secretary 


Librarian and Curator, 

Charles D. Elliot, . 

J. O. Hayden, Chairman, 

John F. Ayer. 

Luther B. Pillsbury. 

Levi L. Hawes. 

Oliver Bacon. 

Mrs. Elizabeth F. Hammond. 

Mrs. V. E. Ayer. 

Seth Mason. 

Alfred M. Cutler. 

Council at-£argc, 

L. Roger Went worth, 

fiistovic Sites. 

Anna P. Vinal, 

Charles D. Elliot. 

Luther B. Pillsbury. 

Bsays and Addresses. 

John F. Ayer, Chairman, Charles D. Elliot, 

William E. Brigham, Seth Mason, 

Mrs. V. E. Ayer. 

DDrary and gaDinet. 

Alfred M. Cutler, Chairman, Levi L. Hawes, 

Mrs. Helen M. Heald, Miss Marriette E. Eddy. 


Benjamin F. Freeman, Chairman, Charles W. Colman, 

Albert L. Haskell. 

Press ana Clippings. 

Miss Anna P. Vinal, Chairman, Miss M. Agnes Hunt, 

Miss Lucy M. Stone, Miss Mary A. Haley. 

Miss Marion Knapp. 

Publications* • 

Sam Walter Foss, Chairman, Frank M. Hawes, 

Sara A, Stone, John F. Ayer, ex-officio. 

military Records. > 

Col. Edwin C. Bennett, Chairman, Levi L. Hawes, 

John H. Dusseault, Alfred M. Cutler. 


Mrs. Elizabeth F. Hammond, Chairman, Mrs. V. E. Ayer, 

Mrs. F. De Witt Lapham. 










Vol.. II. JULY, *903. No. 2. 


By David Lee Maulsby. 

ASSOCIATED with Mrs. Bacon in the editorship of the 
Ladies' Repository was Nancy Thorning Munroe, who had 
indeed begun to contribute to its pages at the age of six- 
teen. She served as one of the two assistant editors during the 
term of her sister-in-law's leadership. Mrs. Munroe also con- 
tributed to the Rose of Sharon. One of her contributions (185G) 
has peculiar local interest, since it relates to the people who lived 
on Prospect Hill near her residence. The yellow house with high 
steps on Walnut street, fronting Aldersey — a house built by her 
husband — is where Mrs. Munroe lived for many years. In "Our 
Model Neighborhood," after discussing what makes good and 
bad neighbors, the author says of her own environment: "And 
now, when I would fain describe it, my heart begins to falter. It 
is not large, though not from any spirit of exclusiveness, be it 
understood. It is peculiar in many things, and one is this: the 
children in this model neighborhood never have any trouble. And 
as the children play together without any trouble, so the parents 
and older members of the neighborhood »live peaceably and 
quietly. They all have kindly feelings toward each other. If 
one has good fortune, others rejoice with him and congratulate 
him. They are like members of one large family; they are so 
nearly connected that what is a joy to one must be a joy to 
another, and what is grief to one must be grief to all." Some in- 
teresting prose and verse appears from Mrs. Munroe's pen in the 


Juvenile Annual called The Rainbow, published 1850. One of 
these contributions is a story about "The Old Pound" of Somer- 
ville, a place where stray animals were locked up until redeemed 
by the owners. Toward the latter part of her life, Mrs. Munroe 
kept a greenhouse, and used her flowers as suggestions for dia- 
logues of animated nature, called "Talks in My Home/' 

Mrs. Munroe is described as a brunette of vivacious manner. 
When she entered a company, she displayed cheerfulness and 
smiles. Her sense of humor is revealed in an incident connected 
with the early history of Tufts College. President Ballou, in 
need of a set of Scott for the college library, sent a humorous 
rhymed epistle to Mrs. Munroe, who, after gaining the co-opera- 
tion of the women of the Cross-street Universalist Church, sent 
him the books desired, accompanied by a rhymed humorous 

The first canto of this reply, which is in metre an imitation 
of Scott's "Marmion," .describes the receipt of the president's re- 
quest, and the anxiety resulting therefrom: — 

"A curse within our college walls, 
A voice from Walnut Hill here calls, 

Sir Walter is not there! 
And all the great, the good, the true, 
Whose names are known the wide earth thro', 
Are up in arms ; their fearful ire 
Doth shake the walls with curses dire, 

And poison all the air." 

After the favorable response of her co-workers, 

"Calm was the matron's sleep that night, 
Hushed were her fears, her bosom light, 
And, as she slept, a vision bright 
Filled all the ambient air/' 

The vision presented Sir V\ alter with his train of characters, 
in varied picturesqueness, filing upon College T Jill, where they 
were reviewed by the now satisfied "Dominie." 


Mrs. Munroe was born in what is now Somerville, married 
a Somerville man, who, with her, was active in founding the 
Cross-street Church, and died at her home on Walnut street in 
1883, aged sixty-three years. 

The Rose of Sharon of 1856, containing the prose just 
quoted, was edited by Mrs. Caroline M. Sawyer. Mrs. Sawyer 
was a resident of Somerville from 1809 until her death in 189-i. 
During this period she lived at Tufts College, where her husband, 
Dr. T. J. Sawyer, was connected Avith the Divinity School — from 
1882 as its dean. An interesting genealogical fact is that, five 
generations back, one Thomas Foxcroft had two sons, who mar- 
ried, respectively, two daughters of John Coney, a goldsmith of 
Boston, and the man who taught Paul Revere his trade. From 
one of these marriages descended Phillips Brooks; from the 
other, Caroline M. Fisher, who became Mrs. Sawyer. 

During her long life Mrs. Sawyer was busy in literary 
activity, contributing prose and verse to the secular and the re- 
ligious press, and editing in turn the youth's department of the 
Christian Messenger, the Rose of Sharon, and the Ladies' Re- 
pository, in the last office immediately succeeding Mrs. Bacon. 
In later years she translated Herder's "Leaves of Antiquity," and 
wrote many poems, some of which remain unpublished. A "Me- 
moir of Mrs. Julia H. Scott" attests long friendship with a fellow 

The verse written by Mrs. Sawyer, not to speak of numerous 
poetical translations, comprises pieces of a personal character, and 
those more objective in their suggestion. To the latter class be- 
longs a stanza written on the occasion of raising the Stars and 
Stripes on the Lincoln school house of Somerville. This may 

properly be quoted, in view of its local associations: — 

"The Flag of our country, the Flag of the free, 
The fairest unfurled o'er the land or the sea. 
We give thy proud folds u> the breeze, while we raise 
The cheer to thy glory, the song to thy praise. 
For we love thee and know that, wherever unfurled. 
The Stars and the Stripes are the hope of the world." 


One of the best of Mrs. Sawyer's poems, of this same imper- 
sonal sort, is the stanza of fourteen lines that appears in some of 
its manuscript versions as "Milton Sleeping." It is said that the 
incident here described did actually occur to the great Puritan 
poet: — 

<c In a cool glade the Bard Divine lay sleeping; 
His young face beautiful with grace and power; 
When, through the bosky reach of leaf and flower, 
Came, with her maiden-guard, a fair dame weeping. 
Startled, she paused, drew near, her soft eyes keeping 
Fixed on the Bard's sweet (ace till, in her breast, 
Her young heart melted, and she knelt and prest 
A light kiss on his lips, he still a-sleeping. 
At this sight grave and stai tied looks went round 
Among the maids, as if they said, 'Can this, 
Our high-born lady, thus a stranger kiss?' 
But she rose proudly, with reply profound, 
'I did but greet a seraph who keeps wait, 
With song celestial, at a mortal gate:' " 

It is hard to resist the impression that the poem called "A 
Love Song," although it is not manifestly personal, yet belongs to 
that pilgrimage of more than sixty years which the writer and 
her husband were privileged to make in company. One who 
saw her with him, going home from church, it might be, Sunday 
after Sunday, cannot shake oil the impression of a long life jour- 
ney, affectionately traveled together. The third stanza of the 
poem runs as follows: — 

"I know there are sorrows and tears, love, 

There is night as well as day, 
But the sorrows will fade and the tears' will dry, 

If Love's hand wipe them away. 
Then come and be mine, my darling, 

And whatever our future bring, 
Whatever the storm that ma)' round us beat, 

In our hearts ? t will be always Spring." 


Of the poems manifestly personal, many deal with the losses 
of life. A religious note is heard in these. For example, the 
lost little children are remembered in ''Doubting and Bless- 

"I sit beside the window, gazing after 
The little feet 
That come and go, 'mid bursts of merry laughter, - 
Along the street. 

"But soon, along the winding highway dying, 
The voices pass ; 
I hear, instead, the low wind faintly sighing 
Among the grass. 

"So years ago — Oh, years how long and weary! 
Out from my day 
Others as young, as laughing, bright, and cheery, 
Vanished away. 

"Alas! no children were they of the stranger — 
Like these, unknown ; 
By life's supremesi agony and danger 
They were my own! 

"I gave them birth ; my yearning heart kept saying, 
'Mid joyful tears, 
How they will love me, every pain repaying, 
In coming years. 

"I fondly watched their growth in strength and beauty 
From day to day ; 
I gently led them in the path of duty 
A little way ; 

"And then they left me! — did I say forever? 
O, untrue word! 
Will they not be mine own again, where never , 
Farewells are heard?" 


Again, the mother lingers, not altogether with pain, upon 
the memory of the daughter that left her at life's noon. Years 
afterward she writes: — 

"My tryst was held beside your bed — 
A radiant shawl of India's loom, 
That seemed to brighten all the room, 
A loving hand had o'ei you spread; 

"The sunset through the easement streamed, 

And lay upon your placid face, 
Still wearing all its living grace, 
And smile that almost living seemed, 

"And children shyly came to fill 

Your hands with morning-glories fair, 
Low whispering, as they smoothed your hair, 
'Our dearest is so very still!' 

"No strange, cold dread their bosoms knew 
To overawe the love which led 
Their little feet to climb your bed, 
That they might closer come to von! 

"Dear scene! Jt lives In [ore me yet! 
Alas for them whose memories keep 
Of their beloved wh n they sleep 
No picture they would ne'er fo.rget!" 

One other extract may be \ iven, to show the essentially re 
ligious tendency of Mrs. Sawyer's mind. Toward the close of 
her life, the retrospect seemed to her to detect too little harvest, il 
in the fields of God. Yet will the reaper not despair. 

"The night draws near, ami I have not compassed 
The task by the Graciou Master set ; 
Ever and ever by incomph t< n 

My efforts all have been sore beset. 


"The hands grew weary that fain had labored, 
Nor asked for rest till their stent was done, 
Till now, scarce heeded, their work is lying 
Unfinished at nearly the set of sun. 

"The brain I trusted has lust its cunning, 

And when I look for its wonted aid, 
The answer comes in a voice unready, 
That leaves me doubling and sore afraid, 

"I sought the field in the early morning, 

When life was gladsome and hope was high, 
And I said, T will work with a hand unwearied, 
And gather a harvest by and by.' 

"But the days and the years in swift succession, 
While I was waiting, by me passed; 
And when I looked for a golden harvest, 
I found but a dreary waste at last! 

"Maybe some gleanings may still be waiting 
For me to cull, ere Thy call shall come, 
So empty-handed I need not enter, 

Shame-faced and weeping, the gates of home! 

"It will not be long, — the Messenger cometh ; 
Step by step He is drawing near ; 
I listen, and seem through the dusky gloaming 
Of the Land of Shadows a Voice to hear! 

"When It calls my name, I will gladly follow, 
Nor fear in the darkness to lose my way ; 
For Thou, O Master! wilt walk beside me, 

And lead me safety to endless day!" 

An impression left after one has read much more than can 
here be quoted is that Mrs. Sawyer, in her most impressionable 
years, had felt, in connection with many others, that great wave 
of Romantic tendency that swept about the globe in the days of 
Byron and Wordsworth. Her poems, notably one called 


"Viola," show unmistakable traces of this tendency. Add to 
this her strong natural affections, and her faithful acceptance of 
the reality of what is unseen and eternal, and an outline of her 
poetic thought is indicated. As a wife and mother, she was in 
her rightful kingdom; as a Christian, despair was upheld by 
faith ; as a writer, her home life and her spiritual experience com- 
bined in a natural expression of herself. 

[To be continued. | 


By Frank Mortimer Hawes. 

MR. BENJAMIN THOMPSON, who had been in charge of 
the Boston Latin School, for some reason was offered a 
secondary position in the same, and declined. He grace- 
fully exchanged places with Mr. Cheever. January 30, 1G71, the 
Charlestown records say: "Mr. Benjamin Thompson began to 
teach the schoole in this Towne." The agreement between him 
and the selectmen reads as follows : — 

1. That he shall be paid £30 per annum by the Towne 
and to receive 20 shillings a year from each particular scholar 
that he shall teach, to be paid him by those who send children to 
him to school. 

2. That he shall prepare such youths as are capable of it for 
the college, with learning answerable. 

3. That he shall teach to read, write & cypher. 

4. That there shall be half a year's warning given mutually 
by him and the Town before any change or remove on either side. 

The school was in Mr. Thompson's hands until November ?, 
1674. It was during this time, May, 1672, that the Rev. Thomas 
Shepard, of Charlestown, in his election sermon, said: "Let the 
schools flourish; this is one of the means whereby we have been, 


and may still be preserved from a wilde wilderness state through 
God's blessing upon the same, and from becoming aland of dark- 
ness and of the shadow of death. Cherish them therefore and 
the College in especial." 

At this time, also, 17: 2 mo., 1G73, "it was voted that the 
persons hereafter mentioned were appointed to look after ye boys 
and keep them in order in ye meeting house upon ye Sabbath & 
Lecture Days, 24 persons being ordered to set two for each 
month with them." The list included many of the solid men of 
the town, and a similar vote was passed for several years there- 

Mr. Thompson (Tompson) achieved no little distinction as a 
schoolmaster, physician, town clerk, and even as poet. He was 
the son of the Rev. William Thompson, and was born in Brain- 
tree July 14, 1642. He graduated from Harvard College in 1662, 
the second in his class, and was appointed to the master's place in 
the Boston school August 26, 1667. While teaching there, he 
had among his pupils the celebrated Cotton Mather, and thus 
"had the honor of helping forward that precocious youth, who, in 
burdensome gratitude, enlivens his 'Magnalia' by references to 
his old master's poetry." 

After leaving Charlestown, we next find Mr. Thompson 
teaching in his native town, where he engaged March 3, 1678-9, 
at a salary of £30. The town is to give him a piece of land to put 
a house on, and every child is to carry to the schoolmaster one- 
half cord of wood, besides the quarter money every year. 168S, 
Mr. Benjamin Thompson, physician and schoolmaster, is men- 
tioned on the Braintree records, and 1696 he is the town clerk of 
that place. He was keeping school in Koxbury from 1700 to 
1704. Mr. Thompson was twice married, first, to Susanna Kirt- 
land, of Lynn, secondly, to Prudence Payson. » He died April 13, 
1714, in his seventy-second year, leaving eight. children and twen- 
ty-eight grandchildren. Of these, a daughter, Susanna, was born 
in Charlestown June 10, 1073. The birth of a daughter, Anna. 
February 21, 1676, is also assigned to Charlestown. If so, the 
family must have lived here alter Ins services as schoolmaster had 


Benjamin Thompson lias been styled by some the first native 
American poet. His versification was considered smooth and 
correct. Perhaps his most famous work was ''New England's 
Crisis," a long poem on King Philip's War. 

November 1G, 1674. "Mr. Thompson, having resigned up 
his charge in this town as schoolmaster ye 7 instant, this day ye 
Selectmen, with the advice and consent of the Reverend Mr. 
Thomas Shepard and Rev. Mr. Joseph Brown, did unanimously 
agree to give Mr. Samuel Phips, of this Towne, a call to the said 
work, who was accordingly sent for, & the matter being proposed, 
viz. : that he should accept of the sd service for half a year upon 
tryall. For which time he is to instruct Youth in Grammar 
Learning, & to fit such for ye College who are capable of it as 
farre as ye time will admit; that he shall also teach to read, write, 
& cypher. In consideration whereof he shall be allowed £30 per 
annum from ye Towne & 20 shillings per annum from each 
schollar taught by him, to be paid by their parents or guardians. 
All which was accepted by him ye next day, being ye 17 Novem- 
ber and upon the 18 he began to keep school. Attested by Lau- 
rence Hammond, Recorder." 

A more extended account than has been accorded to his pre- 
decessors is due to Samuel Phipps, for without doubt he has the 
distinction of being the first native of Charlestown to teach in her 
schools. Then, too, as one of the pioneers in the work, he set the 
pace for that great army of young men who ever since have 
trained themselves for the battle of life by first showing the young 
idea how to shoot. 

He was the son of Solomon Phipps, before mentioned, a 
prominent and useful citizen of that time. His name is the sec- 
ond on the list of those who graduated from Harvard College in 
1671. Isaac Foster, also from Charlestown^ stood first, and 
Samuel Sewall (a name distinguished in our Colonial history) 
came third. The rest of the class, ele\ en in number, were Samuel 
Mather, Samuel Danforth, Peter Thachcr, William Adams, 
Thomas Weld, John Bowles, John Norton, and Edward Tvlor. 
In 1680, a year after he entered upon In. laboi • as school teacher, 
he had fifty-three pupils. His services on Town Hill continued 
until June, 1684. 


Mr. Phipps was thrice married, but the mother of liis eleven 
children appears to have been the second wife, Katherim . 
daughter of John Brackenbury. He always resided in Charles- 
town, and, to judge from the records, deserves to be ranked 
among her most famous citizens. It was here that he joined Un- 
church, March 9, 1(>84. He held all the offices in the gift of his 
fellow townsmen, serving as constable, town clerk or recor 
town treasurer, selectman, and representative to the Gener; I 
Court. This last distinct ion he enjoyed, in all, twelve years. 11 
was Clerk of the Courts for Middlesex county from 31689 to 1 
and for a time was Register of Deeds for the same. He also sei v< 
as captain of the militia. Mr. Phipps died August 7, 1725. ITi> 
interest in the Charlestown school is evinced from various entries 
in the records, some of which we quote later on. 

Taking up, in chronological order, the various references t" 
the school during the Phipps regime, we learn somewhat of tic 
school fund and of the disciplining of the schoolboys. 

January 4, 1875. "Voted that Lotts forfeited to ye Towne be 
given to a free schoole in Charlestown forever." The same da\ 
it was ''agreed that Lo veil's Island should be & remain to the us 
of the school in Charlestown forever, and not to be alienated from 
it to any other use." 

January 17, 1675-6. John Cutler, Jr., one of the constable- 
was thus instructed: "That yon allow no boys to sit in any othei 
place in ye meeting house Imt those appointed for therein, 
the boys' seats in ye long benches in ye southwest alky, 
therefore that you fetch them out of the galleries & from bcl 
the Pulpit or elsewhere, & place them in ye place above said. 

"That you endeavor to prevent playing & all irrelevant cai 
riage in time of Worship. 

"That you prevent there unnecessary frequent running out ol 
ye meeting house in time of exercises, ec particularly there run 
ning out before prayer be done & ye Blessing pronounced, whicl 
is also a particular order from the General Court. 

"That you permit them not to sit in time of prayer, hut i- 
stand up, & during the whole exercise there hats to he off. 

"That you return a list of names of such hoys as will not in 


reclaimed from there disorders by you, that they may be pro- 
ceeded with as ye law in yt case directs." 

Frothingham, against the year 1679, says: "The ministers 
complained in their sermons of the general decay of schools, and 
an effort was made to restore them." This may explain our next 
extract from the records. 

March 10, 1678-9. "At a general meeting of the Inhabitants 
it was put to a voat to ye inhabitants of this Town whether they 
would make a free School in this Town by allowing £50 per 
annum in or as money & a convenient house for a schoolmaster 
who is to teach Lattin, writing, siphering, & to perfect children 
in reading English. It was passed with a general voat by ye 
holding up of their hands, as Attests James Russell, Recorder." 
The seventh of April following "it was agreed with Mr. Samuel 
Phips to keepe the Free Schole of this Towne on the terms as was 
voted at the Towne Meeting (in March), wch is for the Yeare 
ensuing wch yr begins the 11-th of this Instant Aprill. Per John 
Newell, Recorder." 

March 6, 1681-2. "It was agreed with Luke Perkins to in- 
spect ye Youth at the meeting house in time of Worship for this 
yeare ensuing, for which he is to have £3 for this yeare, one-half 
money & the other halfe Towne pay, provided he be careful in 
his office." It thus appears that the fathers were tired of doing- 
police duty on the Sabbath, and were glad to hire a substitute for 
about a shilling per week! Perhaps the most interesting item 
that the records furnish us at this time is the account of the build- 
ing of a new school building, which, as far as we know, was the 
second schoolhouse erected in Charlestown. 

30 March, 1681-2. "Then agreed with the brothers 
Nathaniel & Samuel Frothingham that they build a sufficient 
frame for a schoole of 20 ft. square & 8 fout'studd within joints 
with a flatish Roofe and a Turret on it for the bell, and likewise 
a mantle-tree of 12 foot long, cK: to raise sd frame by 17th of "May 
next, and to furnish all the carpenter worke aboul it by the middle 
of June next. And the Selectmen doth promise to finde them 
with boards, shingis, and nayls, and lo pay them for sd worke 
thirteen pounds, one-half money. Auest Jno. Newell, Recorder," 


Also agreed, April 2(>, 108:3, with Xtopher Goodwin, Jim., 
"to doe the mason worke belonging to ye new schoolhouse, viz., 
to build ye Chimnie & underpin ye house, to fill the walls with 
clay & brick, and to point the roof with lime, he finding all mate- 
nails belonging to it, as brick, stone, & Lime, etc., etc. Sd Good- 
win is to have ye stone & brick of ye old house, & for so doing 
his worke substantially he is to receive five pounds, one-half 
money, the other Townes pay." 

This new building, built in part, perhaps, from the material 
of the old, probably stood on or near the same spot as its prede- 
cessor, which had done service since 1651. Fifteen years after its 
erection, 1666, it was "much out of repair," but, thanks to Master 
Cheever's urging, it was made to do service sixteen years longer. 
Frothingham, page 185, makes a mistake when he says this new 
building was only twelve feet square, and "Somerville, Past and 
Present," has copied the error. 

April 3, 1684. "Agreed with Michael Long to inspect the 
Youth on the Lord's Day & other times of Religious Worship 
for 25 shillings and 15 shillings in towne pay for one year." 
From this decrease in salary, may we infer that the duties were 
growing less arduous? 

Mr. Phipps' successor was Mr. Samuel Myles (Miles) who, 
July 17, 1684, entered upon his labors as master "of the Free 
School of this Towne." The following contract is dated August 
11 of that year : — 

"Agreed with Mr. Samuel Miles, schoolmaster, to pay unto 
him £50 per annum for his faithful performing of that place. By 
Teaching & p'r'fting Youth that, are committed to him, wh. sum 
is to be payd quarterly, the one-half in money, and the other in 
corn at money price. Likewise to allow him 5 pounds per year 
for house rent, to be payd in Towne pay, which agreement is to 
continue for one year." 

December 6, 1686. "Mr. Samuel Phipps, as Town Treas- 
urer, is empowered to lay out the ^- r > pounds money belonging to 
the Free School, Provided he take sufficient security therefor." 

From Sibley's "Harvard Graduates" we learn that the Rev. 
Samuel Miles was the son of Rev. John Miles, a Baptist preacher, 


who, in 16G3, formed a society in Rehoboth, the oldest Baptist 
church in Massachusetts. He died in 1083, while his son 
Samuel, according to his will, was a student at the college. After 
graduating in 1687, young Miles continued to teach in Charles- 
town for a while, for it appears that the town was obliged to pay 
him his salary up to October of that year. About this time he 
became an Episcopalian, and we next find him connected with 
King's Chapel, Boston. In 1G92 he visited England and brought 
away gifts for his chapel left by Queen Mary, then deceased, and 
also from King William. Some of these substantial evidences of 
royal favor are still treasured in Boston and elsewhere. In 1698 
the wardens of King's Chapel, for the third time, apply to the 
Bishop of London for an assistant, and, in mentioning Mr. Miles, 
speak of him in most flattering terms as "well liked of all of us," 
and as "a good liver and a painful preacher." April 15, 1723, he 
laid the corner-stone "at ye new North Church." After a min- 
istry of nearly forty years, he died March 4, 1728. 

The receipt by which Samuel Myles, of Boston, in Co. of 
Suffolk, etc., Clerk, for and in consideration of £28 current mone\ 
pd by'Nath'l Dows, of Charlestown, treasurer of said town, doth 
remise, release, and forever quit claim unto said Town, etc., etc., 
the amount of its indebtedness to him "from the beginning of the 
world unto the present time," is a curious specimen of legal 
writing of that day. It was signed 27 March, 1G99, and witnessed 
by Jno. Cutler and Thomas Parks. 

We are not without evidence that the colonists of the Stricter 
sort did not relish any return to Episcopacy. Was it Samuel 
Myles' influence that caused the May-pole to be set up in Charles- 
town? Frothingham, page 221, says, under date of May, 1()8T, 
"the May-pole was again cut down, and it was noised about that 
Samuel Phipps, one of the selectmen, led 'and encouraged the 
watch to cut it down." 

During the Andros persecution Charlestown had its trials 
along with other communities. Mr. Phipps, too, for a while suf- 
fered from unpopularity. Much against his wish, he was ap- 
pointed constable. August 9, 1086, he complained to the gov- 
ernment of the town's action, and asked release from the fine, ( n 


the ground that he was a master of arts and kept a grammar 
school. He was accordingly excused, but the town rebelled and 
again chose him to the office. If appears that his excuse was 
considered a thin one, for, said the people, "if the instruction of 
two or three youths in a private way in his house, as his other 
occasions will permit (for his private benefit) in grammar learn- 
ing, at the desire of their friends, will give him the reputation of 
keeping a grammar school, so be it." 

We have given this incident, not as a piece of historical gos- 
sip, but to show that the youth of Charlestown, as in Cheever's 
time, did not get their education wholly from the Town Hill 

April 20, 1G91. "Agreed with Mr. Jno. Emerson to be 
schoolmaster in this Towne for the education of Youth, viz., in 
Lattin, writing, ciphering, and perfecting in English, & for en- 
couragement in sd work, the Selectmen promise the sd school- 
master, Mr. Emerson, 25 pounds per annum, one-half money & 
the other half as money. And such Youth as do enter under sd 
schoolmaster his Tutorage, they are to pay as he and their 
parents or overseers do agree fur, and as to some poor children 
that may come, as sd Mr. Emerson and the Selectmen may agree 
therein, and the above sd twenty-five pounds is to be payd quar- 
terly from May the -1th following." 

May 9, 1G95. "Voted that what is rising annually upon the 
account of the school in this Town shall be payd annually to a 
schoolmaster, & no more towards keeping a gramer & writing 
school, and the sd schoolmaster to have the benefit of the scholars 
to make up his sallary, and the management thereof to be left to 
the selectmen." 

December 7, 1G9G. "Then ordered the Town Treasurer to 
pay Mr. John Emerson, schoolmaster, besides the Rent of 
Lovels Hand, 8 pounds as he had Last Yeare." 

November 2, 1(597. "Then ordered Town Treasurer to pay 
for a bushel of Lime to rcpaire the school house." 

February 1, 1698. "To Xtopher Goodwin for work at the 
Schoolhouse, and to Mr. Emerson 8 pounds." 

May 17, 1698. "Let unto Josiah freadway the land for- 


merly for the school fenced in and improved by the schoolmaster. 
It being all the land belonging to the Towhe from the lower end 
of the schoolhouse on a straight line to Timothy Cutler's barn, 
containing 30 rod, more or less, for a term of seven years, 5 shill- 
ing for the first year, and 10 shilling per yeare thereafter." 

January 6, 1698-9. "Xtopher Goodwin, for work at school- 
house (4-6) four and sixpence." 

January 23, 1698. Treasurer's account : — 
Mr. John Emerson, Dr. 
To Rent of Lovell's Is., CIO. 
To Money pd being for year 1697, £8. 
To Rent for the Island, £10. 
To money being rent for school land, £8. 
Total, £36. 
From the Emerson Genealogy we learn that Rev. John 
Emerson, of the class of 1675 (Harvard), was the son of Nathan- 
iel 2 (Thomas 1 ) Emerson. He was born in Ipswich, 1651, and died 
in Salem February 21, 1712. His grave is in the Charter street 
burying ground. He served as a chaplain in the Indian Wars, 
and taught school at Newbury, Charlestown, and Salem. 
August 25, 1699, the selectmen of Salem called him from Charles- 
town, at a salary of £50, to teach Greek, Latin, writing, cypher- 
ing, and to perfect such in reading as can read a chapter compe- 
tently well. The following regulations at Salem were, doubtless, 
not unlike those in other communities at that day. The school 
bell was to be rung at 7 a. m. and 5 p. in. from March 1 to No- 
vember 1, and at 8 a. m. and -1 p. m. from November 1 to 
March 1. School was to begin and end accordingly! Comment 
and comparisons with present-day methods are unnecessary- 
Mr. Emerson married, in 1699, Sarah, widow of John Carter, 
and daughter of Richard and Joanna StOwers*bf Charlestown. 
A daughter, Sarah, born to them August, 1695, married Hon. 
Richard Foster, Jr. (nephew of Isaac and grandson of William 
and Anne [Brackcnbury | Foster) Through his wife, Mr. Emer- 
son's name is connected with numerous real estate transactions in 
Charlestown. His widow long survived him. 

March 4, 1699-00. "Voted that the selectmen, with Mr. 


Samuel Phipps & Lt. Eleazer Phillips, be a committee to bargain 
and agree with a gramer schoolmaster for the yeare to keep a free 
school & the Selectmen to Raise by way of Rate on the Inhabit- 
ants what shall be wanting beside what is already given for that 
use to make up the sallery that shall be agreed upon to be given 
to sd schoolmaster." 

March 8. "Agreed that Mr. Samuel Phipps & Lt. Eleazer 
Phillips go to Cambridge or elsewhere & inform themselves by 
the best advice they can get of a suitable person for a school- 
master, & if they see meet to agree with one, this to be done with 
all expedition." 

This unseemly haste is explained, perhaps, by a reference in 
Hutchinson Collection, page 553. Krothingham says, page 214, 
"So watchful were the public authorities of the common schools 
that in 1691 Charlestown was presented to the county court for 
its neglect, while it was in search of a competent teacher, and only 
saved itself from a penalty by a quick bargain." 

May 22, 1700. "According to vote in March the selectmen 
and committee agreed with Mr. Thomas Swan to keep the school 
in this Towne, to teach children belonging to this towne Lattin, 
writeing, scifering, & to perfect them in Reading English, & 
forthwith to enter upon said work & continue for the space of one 
whole yeare from the day of the date hereof. In consideration 
of which service, faithfully performed, it was agreed that he be 
paid £40 money for the year, to be paid quarterly. Nathl Dowse, 

Various orders to the town treasurer to pay Mr. Swan are 
found upon the books, the most interesting being that of October 
27, 1702 : "To Mr. Thomas Swan 15 shillings money disbursed by 
him for wood for the schooling of pore children." 

Thus ends the account of Charlestdwn school in the first cen- 
tury of our history, lt remains to add that, at the opening of the 
eighteenth century (Frothingham, page 213), at annual meeting 
in March, it was voted, if there should be a comity school settled 
by the General Court, that this Town would raise 640, in order to 
provide for it, if it be settled in this town. Apparently nothing 
ever came of this. 


Neal's "New England," page 613, asserts that there was 
hardly a child of nine or ten years old throughout the whole coun- 
try at this time but could read and write and say his catechism. 
If this be true, from the account which we have attempted to pre- 
sent, it may be judged whether Charlestown was faithful or not 
to its duty. 

(To be continued.) 


By John. F. Ayer. 

IN 1858 I located on Medford street, where Chester avenue and 
Medford Street unite; the house, since remodeled, is now 

owned by Mr. Sears Condit. It was a two-story, flat-roof 
structure, and connected with it there was a large lot of land, 
with several apple trees. 

On the adjoining land, north, stood the Hearse house, also 
the Town Pound, both of which disappeared when the Brastow 
schoolhouse was built on the land — as did the schoolhouse itself 
a few years later, when the location was wanted for the Central 
fire station. 

Chester avenue did not exist at that time, but it was opened 
a few years later, when the several houses that front toward the 
railroad were built. 

There were three houses only on tin's portion of Barberry 
Lane, the one I occupied, the one owned and occupied by John 
W. Mandell next east of it, and a third one adjoining Mandell, 
owned and occupied by Charles Bird, Jr. 

Mandell afterward located on Prescott street as a florist, 
while Bird drifted to Chelsea and became an auctioneer. 

Northwest from us, along Medford street, there was no 
house until you came to Captain Brown's, near Central street. 
Opposite Brown, or a little further along, about where Ames 
street is, stood a small farmhouse and barn. 


A little more to the north of Medford street stood the home 
of Charles E. Gilman on Walnut street, also an old house opposite 
his, both of which are still standing. 

Mr. Gilman was about fifty years old at this time, and his 
farm of several acres extended northerly nearly to Gilman square, 
and southerly about the same distance, Gilman street being laid 
out through his land. 

Gilman was a messenger, I think, in the New England Bank 
in Boston, going and returning over the Lowell railroad each 
morning and afternoon, attending to his duties as town clerk all 
the while. 

Next along Walnut street northerly was William Veazie, 
whose house was in plain view from our windows. The first 
house he built was burned before completion, the second one — 
now standing — was guarded every night while being constructed. 
A supposed incendiary was shot one night by the watchman on 

In the rear of Veazie was a farm owned by Abraham M. 
Moore, whose buildings were in plain view ; his land opened on to 
Walnut street, and also onto what is now Bonair street. There 
was a stone quarry on his premises, in the rear of Veazie, furnish- 
ing the familiar blue ledge stone for cellar walls so well known to 
all builders. 

Along Walnut street, adjoining Moore, Edward Cutter — 
young Ned Cutter, as he was called — owned to Broadway; the 
house on Walnut street is still standing. 

Cutter was a dissipated fellow, told big stories which few be- 
lieved, was quite successful as a fruit-grower, however, and his 
extensive pear orchard will be long; remembered by the older citi- 
zens of the town. 

Opposite Cutter, on Walnut street, \yas the Skilton place. 
John, a bachelor, and very deal, was for many years treasurer of 
the Warren Institution for Savings in Charlestown, and George, 
his brother, engaged in his first efforts at pickle and rhubarb wine 
making, occupied the house, which is still standing. 

Next south of the Skiltons was a small farm of a Mrs. Moore, 
two or three acres, afterward owned by Samuel Mills, who opened 


up the street of that name — the same that has recently been re- 
named Sargent avenue — into which it opened at right angles. 

Fitch Cutter owned a tract of grass land to the south of the 
Mills estate, and on Walnut street there were no houses between 
Mills and Town Clerk Gilman, on the westerly side. 

Directly northeast from our house, there were few, if any, 
houses between us and Broadway. Mr. Samuel D. Had- 
ley, a music teacher (father of S. Henry Hadley), built 
a house on Everett avenue, the first one in that vicin- 
ity, about 1859 or 18C0. Seemingly, he was away off 
in the pasture, for none of the streets, Otis, Auburn 
avenue, Bonair, Peart, Flint, or Gilman, had been opened at this 
time. It was all grass or pasture land from Cross to Walnut to 
School street, and beyond to Sycamore. With the exception of 
the few mentioned on Walnut street, no buildings stood until you 
came to the Forster schoolhouse — a wooden structure on Syca- 
more street — but away to the right of it, along Broadway, could 
be seen the few houses which existed at that time. Marshall, 
Dartmouth, and Thurston streets were not in existence. 

Looking still further toward the east across the fields to 
where Mt. Pleasant street and Perkins street are only a few 
houses could be seen ; the John Runey house and the Pottery 
buildings on the northerly side of Cross street, about where Flint 
street is, the houses of Charles Williams, Horace Runey, a Mr. 
Appleton, and two or three others along that part of Cross street, 
and then no buildings till you reached the Galletly Rope Walk, 
the Towne residence and hot houses off Washington street, the 
Bailey and Guild houses on Perkins street, with possibly two or 
three others near by. 

All between Perkins and Cross streets was pasture land, and 
one would let down the bars near Alt. Vernon* street, on Perkins, 
and walk unmolested to a point opposite the Runey pottery, 
where, letting down another set of bars, he would find himself on 
Cross street. Clay pits were numerous along Oliver street, be- 
tween Franklin street and Glen. Winter evenings we could se'e 
the bonfires lighted by the skaters, and hear their voices plainly. 

Of the near-by neighbors, 1 recall Charles Munroe and James 


S. Runey, who lived opposite us, Frank Russell, whose place ad- 
joined the Munroe estate, forming the corner of Greenville street, 
and near by, on the opposite side of Greenville street, was the 
Alexander Wood place. 

At the junction of Highland avenue and Medford street was 
the John Bolton homestead, and opposite Bolton, on Highland 
avenue, was the farm of Ira Thorp. 

Mr. Munroe was prematurely old, had retired from business, 
and could be found generally about his 'place or along the street. 
He was a little lame, carried a stout cane, and moved about cau- 
tiously. He was a genial, sociable fellow, and his hearty greeting 
and loud laughter I recall with pleasure. 

James S. Runey was with his brother John in the pottery 
business on Cross street. He was a quiet, kindly, home-loving 
man, it seemed to me; his widow, Mrs. Maria M. Runey, is still 
living in the Munroe house with her sister, Miss Louisa Munroe. 

Frank Russell was a well-known resident; everybody knew 
him. Like his neighbor Munroe, he had retired from active busi- 
ness. He and Charles H. North had been in the pork packing 
business together for some years ; he had been in the boot and 
shoe business, also. 

He owned the triangle bounded by Chester avenue, Cross 
street, and Medford street, and property in other places, as well. 
His home partook of the well-to-do country type, and he is well 
remembered by the older people. 

The place has gone out of the family, but remains much the 
same as in the early days. 

Mr. Bolton occupied the premises bounded by Walnut street. 
Highland avenue, and Medford street, one of the best locations 
for a home in Somerville. 1 le had a fine house, with ample 
grounds, was an engraver in Boston, a tall man, somewhat grey, 
intelligent, well-to-do. The land has been divided up and built 
over. The house has disappeared. 

Ira Thorp, quite an old man, rather under size, thin and 
stooping, a good neighbor, was the typical milkman of the vi- 
cinity. He produced milk, and dispensed it to the neighk rs 
straight. His house was at the corner of Walnut street and 


Highland avenue. The barn was on the line of Walnut street, 
a great trough outside it, where the fresh milk in cans was placed 
to cool. He pastured his cows across the way from the barn, 
where they had ample range. 

Both house and barn have long since disappeared, his hold- 
ings are now covered with residences, but he will be long remem- 
bered and often talked about by the old-time families in this lo- 



By Mrs. O. S. Knapp. 

ASHINGTON street lias always been a much-traveled 

thoroughfare, and was the first street laid out in the 

early settlement of the place I will write briefly of the 

houses and their occupants as ! remember them from Union 

square to Medford street on the northerly side of Washington. 

Three houses have been moved, viz.: the house owned by 
the Stone family, that stood near the present site of the Stone 
building, was moved several years ago to make room for busi- 
ness purposes. 

Both the Prospect Hill ami Pope schoolhouses are located 
where dwelling-houses once sto< Mr. Bonner, who lived 

where the Prospect Hill schoolhouse now stands, moved his 
house up the hill on Bonner avenue. A family by the name of 
Harrington lived where the Pope schoolhouse is located. 

Next below where we lived was the old Shedd place, known 
to Revolutionary fame, as a British soldier was killed in the 
house on the retreat from Lexington. I Jo not remember the 
name of the family who lived there in my childhood days. It 
was a pretty cottage, set well back from the street, surrounded 
by overgrown and untrahn d In nl I > it a romantic and 

pleasing appearance. The pla .• was soli! some years since t< 
Mr. Walker, who so enlarge 1 i • altered it that one could never 
recognize the original dwelling. 


A few rods from the Shedd place Mrs. Frost lived. Her house 
stood near the street. A social-looking pump in front, with dip- 
per attached, invited the thirsty traveler to stop for a cooling 
draught as he passed by. This house, also, has yielded to the 
pressure of business, the front of it having been built out for 

The substantial looking house now owned and occupied by 
George Haven, situated near the corner of Washington and 
Medford streets, has changed very little in its external appear- 
ance. My earliest recollections of the place are of a family by 
the name of Pritchard living there, but they did not remain veFj 

The three remaining houses to be spoken of are clearer to 
my memory than any of the others. The house occupied by 
David Sanborn, father of David Sanborn who resides on Pros- 
pect street, stands near Union square. Adjoining this is the 
one then occupied by "Grandma'' Bonner, sister of the elder 
Mrs. Sanborn, and mother of William Bonner, who moved his 
house up the hill. 

In the third house, just east of the Prospect Hill school- 
house, my father, Joseph Clark, lived. These three houses are 
in possession of the original families, the descendants of two of 
them (Mrs. Bonner's and my lather's) occupying them. Al- 
though the years have not passed by without leaving their ti 
on them, and the lovely, old-fashioned (lower gardens belonging 
to them have long since gone, they wear a natural, old-time Look, 
and stand as landmarks to those- who .were familiar with Somer- 
ville when it was set off from Charlestown. 



Officers of SomerviBle historical Society. 



First Vice-President, 

Second Vice-President 

Third Vice-President, 

Recording Secretary, 

Corresponding Secretary 


Librarian and Curator, 

Charles D. Elliot, 

J. O. Hayden, Chairman, 

John F. Ayer, Chairman, 
William E. Brigham, 

John F. Ayer. 

Luther B. Pillsbury. 

Levi L. Hawes. 

Oliver Bacon. 

Mrs. Elizabeth F. Hammond. 

Mrs. V. E. Ayer. 

Seth Mason. 

Alfred M. Cutler. 


L. Roger Wentworth, 

historic Sites. 

Anna P. Vinal. 

Charles D. Elliot. 

Luther B. Pillsbury. 

essays ana Jiaaresses. 

Charles D. Elliot, 
Seth Mason, 

Mrs, V. E. Ayer. 

D&rary ana Cabinet. 

Alfred M. Cutler, Chairman, 
Mrs. Helen M. Heald, 


Benjamin F. Freeman, Chairman, 

Albert L. Haskel 

Levi L. Hawes, 

Miss Marriette E. Eddy. 

Charles W. Colman, 

Press ana Clippings. 

Miss Anna P. Vinal, Chairman, Miss M. Agnes Hunt, 

Miss Lucy M. Stone, Miss Mary A. Haley, 

Miss Marion Knapp. * 


Sam Walter Foss, Chairman, Frank M. Hawes, 

Sara A. Stone, John F. x Ayer, ex-officio. 

Military Recoras. 

Col. Edwin C. Bennett, Chairman, Levi L. Hawes, 

John H. Dusseault, Alfred M. Cutler. 


Mrs. Elizabeth F. Hammond, Chairman, Mrs. V. E. Ayer, 

Mrs. F..De Witt Lapham. 



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Vol. II. OCTOBER, 1903. No. 3. 




By Herbert Pierce Yeatoru 

THE CANALS of the Merrimac River had their day 
and active existence in the first half of the last century. 
They have been referred to as the earliest step towards a 
solution of the problem of cheap transportation between Boston 
and the northern country; but perhaps they may be more prop- 
erly classed as the second step in that direction, the turnpikes 
having been in the field. 

James Sullivan and his associates, the original projectors of 
the canal system, undoubtedly had in mind, not only to connect 
Boston with the Merrimac River country, but also to extend 
their canals from the Merrimac to the Connecticut River, 
and from the Connecticut River to Lake Champlain, and through 
its outlet to the St. Lawrence, thus bringing Boston into inland 
water communication with Montreal and the lower Canada. 

The project was too vast, and the physical obstacles too 
formidable to admit of full consummation, and their labors re- 
sulted only in uniting by navigable water the capitals of Mas- 
sachusetts and New Hampshire, covering a distance of about 
eighty-five miles. 

The Middlesex Canal, twenty-seven miles long, from Bos- 
ton to the Merrimac River at what is now known as Middlesex 
Village, about two miles above Lowell, was the first constructed. 
The work on this was commenced in 1794, and completed and 
opened for public use in 180t3. Following the construction of 
the Middlesex Canal came the requisite work to render the 


Merrimac River navigable; from the head of the canal to Con- 
cord, N. H., being a series of dams, locks, and short canals to 
overcome the natural rapids and falls of the river. 

The first of these works was a lock and short canal at Wis- 
cassee Falls, three miles above the head of the Middlesex Canal 
and what is now known as Tyngs Island. No fall is now per- 
ceptible at that point, the Lowell dam having flowed it out. The 
second work, fifteen miles further up, at Cromwell's Falls, con- 
sisted of a dam and single lock. Then came dams and single 
locks at Moor's, Coos', Golf's, Griffin's and Merrill's Falls. 
About a mile above Merrill's Falls were the lower locks of the 
Amoskeag, a canal next in importance to the Middlesex Canal. 
It was only about a mile in length, but surmounted by works of 
very considerable magnitude, where the great fall of between 
fifty and sixty feet now furnishes the water power for the mills 
at Manchester. The contract was first undertaken by Samuel 
Blodgett in 1794, and not completed until 1807. 

Eight miles above .-Amoskeag the lucks and short canal at 
Hooksett overcame a fall of some seventeen and one-half feet : 
further up the Bow locks and canal afforded the final lift of 
twenty-seven feet to the level of the navigable water of the Mer- 
rimac at Concord. 

Short side canals with locks were subsequently built at the 
junction of the Nashua and Piscataquog Rivers with the Mer- 
rimac, to facilitate the passage of boats from the Merrimac t< 
the storehouse in Nashua and Piscataquog villages. 

For forty years this line of canals formed the princi 
channel of heavy transportation between the two capitals, and 
except that the canals did not effectually compete with tin- 
stages for carrying passengers, they held the same position u 
transportation as is now held by their successor and destrox i 
the railroad. 

During the entire season of open river, from the time ! 
the spring break-np of ice permitted navigation to commence 
until the frosts of fall again closed it, this eighty-five miles 
w r ater was thronged with boats taking the products of the coiui 
try to a market and the New England metropolis, and retnn 


loaded with salt, lime, cement, plaster, hardware, leather, liquors, 
iron, glass, grindstones, cordage, paints, oils and all the infinite 
variety of merchandise required by country merchants formerly 
classed under the general terms of "Dry West India goods/' 

The construction of these canals was a great undertaking 
in that day. Boston was a town of only about 20,000. Neither 
Lowell nor Manchester had been commenced, and Nashua was 
a small place without manufacturing, and Concord was a coun- 
try village. 

The Merrimac Canals were blotted out by the railroad. The 
opening of the Lowell road in 1835, to Nashua in 1838, and to 
Concord in 1812, were successive steps of destruction to the 
whole system of river navigation, and culminated in the total 
abandonment of the canal soon after the Concord railroad was 
put in operation. 

A hardy race of boatmen, pilots, and raftsmen — men of un- 
common strength and endurance, skilled in their calling, but 
unfamiliar with other labors — were suddenly thrown out of em- 
ployment. The wooden dams and locks went to decay, the 
embankments were cut and plowed down, and successive spring 
freshets have hurled their icy batteries against the stone abut- 
ments and lock walls until they are nearly obliterated, and the 
next generation will not know of them. 


The observant traveler on the Boston & Lowell Railroad, 
now the Southern Division of the Boston & Maine, between 
Woburn and Billerica, may see a broad ditch filled with a slug- 
gish stream of water. He is told, perhaps, that this was once a 
portion of the Old Middlesex Canal ; with the words come a swift 
vision of a silvery ribbon of water lying between cultivated 
meadows and bordered by velvety lawns and shaded woodland. 
On its bosom he sees the canal-boat, moving forward with easy, 
quiet dignity, appropriate to the time when leisure was still al- 
lowable. The vision is quickly dispelled by the rush and roar of 
the train sweeping on to its destination, as the canal itself was 
obliterated by the growth of steam power. Tt may, perhaps, help 


to an appreciation of the vast changes which accompanied this 
transition if we will remember that, roughly speaking, the Mid- 
dlesex Canal belongs to the first half of the nineteenth century, 
while the railroad belongs to the. latter half of that period. 

In the month of May, 1793, a certain number of gentlemen 
assembled for the purpose of "opening a canal from the waters 
of the Merrimac, by Concord River or in some other way, 
through the waters of Mystic River to the town of Boston.''" 
There were present at this meeting the Hon. James Sullivan, who 
was at this time attorney general, and later governor of Massa- 
chusetts, and in whose fertile mind the idea originated; Benjamin 
Hall, Willis Hall, Ebenezer Hall, Jonathan Porter, Loammi 
Baldwin, a leader in the enterprise and superintendent of con- 
struction, Ebenezer Hall, Jr., Andrew Hall, and Samuel Swan, 
Esq. After organizing by the choice of Benjamin Hall as chair- 
man, and Samuel Swan, Esq., as clerk, the Hon. James Sullivan, 
Loammi Baldwin, and Captain Ebenezer Hall were chosen a 
committee to attend the General Court, in order to obtain an 
Act of Incorporation, with suitable powers relating to the prem- 
ises. In conformity with this vote, a petition was presented to 
the General Court, and a charter obtained incorporating James 
Sullivan, Esq., and others, by the name of the Proprietors of the 
Middlesex Canal, bearing date June 22, 171)3, and on the same 
day signed by His Excellency, John Hancock, Governor of the 
Commonwealth. By this charter the proprietors were author- 
ized to lay assessments from time to time as might be required 
for the construction of said canal. It was further provided that 
the proprietors might hold real estate .to the value of $30,000 
over the value of the canal ; also to render Concord River boata- 
ble as far as Sudbury Causeway, through Billerica, Carlisle, 
Bedford, Concord, to Sudbury, a distance of twenty-three miles. 
This formed a portion of Mr. Sullivan's far-reaching plan for 
inland waterways, extending well into the interior of Massachu- 
setts, and by way of the Merrimac River to Concord, New 
Hampshire, through Lake Sunape to the Connecticut River, at 
Windsor, and thence to the St. Lawrence River. This seemed 
a good and practical plan, and it ihe railroad had been delayed 


ten years, would undoubtedly have been realized; and further 
to extend the canal from Medford to Boston, the original inten- 
tion to have the eastern limit at Medford. By an act of June 
25, 1798, the proprietors were allowed to hold mill property. 

At the first meeting of the proprietors, after the choice of 
James Sullivan as moderator, and Samuel Swan as clerk, the 
following votes were passed, viz. : — 

That the Hon. James Sullivan, Hon. James Winthrop, and 
Christopher Gore, Esq., be a committee to arrange the business 
of the meeting, which they reported in the following order: — 

Voted: That the business of the corporation be transacted 
by a committee annually elected, consisting of thirteen directors, 
who shall choose their President and Vice-President out of their 
own number. 

Voted: That the Hon. James Sullivan, Loammi Baldwin, 
Esq., the Hon. Thomas Russell, Hon. James Winthrop, Christo- 
pher Gore, Esq., Joseph Barrell, Esq., Andrew Craigie, Esq., 
Hon. John Brooks, Captain Ebenezer Hall, Jonathan Porter, 
Esq., Ebenezer Storer, Esq., Caleb Swan, and Samuel Jaques be 
directors for pursuing the business of the canal for the present 

At the meeting of the directors on October 11, the following 
vote was passed: — 

Voted: That the Hon. James Sullivan be president, 
Loammi Baldwin, Esq., first vice-president, and Hon. John 
Brooks, second vice-president. 

The Board of Directors being duly organized, the next duty 
was to commence the necessary surveys of the most eligible 
route between Medford River, Chelmsford, and the Concord 
River. Here the committee were met by an almost insurmount- 
able difficulty ; the science of Civil Engineering was almost 
unknown to anyone in this part of the cotuitry. They were, 
however, determined to persevere, and appointed Mr. Samuel 
Thompson, of Woburn, who began his work, and proceeded 
from Medford River, following up the river to Mystic Pond, 
through the pond and Symms' River to Horn Pond in Woburn, 
and through said pond to the head thereof. 


Meeting here bars they could neither let down nor remove, 
they went back to Richardson's Mill on Symms' River, and 
passed up the valley through the cast part of Woburn to Wil- 
mington, and found an easy and very regular ascent until they 
reached the Concord River, a distance traveled, as the surveyor 
says, "From Medford Bridge to the JJillerica Bridge, about 
twenty-three miles, and the ascent he found to be, from Med- 
ford River to the Concord River, sixty-eight and one-half feet." 
The actual elevation, when afterwards surveyed by a practical 
engineer, was found to be i 0-1 feet. By the original survey from 
Billerica to Chelmsford, the surveyor says, "The water we esti- 
mate in the Merrimac River at sixteen and one-half feet above 
that at Billerica Bridge, and the distance six miles," when in 
fact the water at Billerica Bridge is about twenty-five feet above 
the Merrimac at Chelmsford. This report shows one of the 
many difficulties the directors had to contend with for the want 
of requisite scientific knowledge. It will be seen that the Con- 
cord was thus at the summit of the canal, and able to supply 
water in both directions. It will be seen later how this fact was 
further utilized in the attempt to form an aqueduct of the' canal. 

On the first day of March, 1794, the directors passed a vote 
appointing Loammi Baldwin, Esq., to repair to Philadelphia 
and endeavor to obtain the services of Mr. Samuel Weston, a 
distinguished English engineer, then in this country working in 
the Potomac canals. If he cannot come, then that he endeavor 
to obtain some other person who shall be recommended by Mr. 
Weston, and that said agent be authorized to write to Europe 
for some suitable person for the undertaking, if none can be 
found elsewhere. 

Colonel Baldwin made a lengthy and able report on the 
twelfth day of May, 1791. Among other things, he says he has 
engaged Mr. Weston to make the survey of the route in the 
month of June, and closes his report as follows: "I consider the 
prospects before us in this undertaking much more flattering, in 
respect to the execution of the work in proportion to the extent. 
than any I have seen in the Southern .states, the Washington 
canal excepted." 


About the fifteenth of July Mr. Weston arrived, and a com- 
mittee, consisting- of Loammi Baldwin and Samuel Jaques, was 
appointed ''to attend him during his survey and observations 
relating to the canal/' The survey was completed, and a full 
report made by Mr. Weston on the second day of August, 171)1. 
The survey made by Samuel Thompson was the one selected 
forty years later for the Boston & Lowell Railroad. 

Agents were then immediately appointed to carry on the 
work, to commence at Billerica Mills on the Concord River, and 
first complete the level to the Merrimac at North Chelmsford. 
Colonel Baldwin, who superintended the construction of the 
canal, removed the first turf on the tenth of September, 1794. 
The season having so far advanced, but little could be done until 
the next spring except to purchase material and make contracts 
for future operations. The purchase of land from more than 
100 proprietors demanded skillful diplomacy. Most of the lands 
acquired were by voluntary sale and conveyed in fee-simple to 
the corporation, sixteen lots were taken by authority of the 
Court of Sessions, while for thirteen others neither deed nor 
record could be found when the corporation came to an end. 
Some of the land was never paid for, as the owners refused to 
accept the sum awarded. The compensation for the land taken 
ranged from $150 per acre, in Medford, to $25 per acre in Bil- 
lerica. The progress was slow and attended with many em- 
barrassments, and was prosecuted with great caution from the 
commencement to the year 1803, at which time the canal was so 
far completed as to be navigable from the Merrimac to the 
Charles River, the first boat, however, being actually run over a 
portion of the canal on April 22, 1802. 

Delays and great expense were incurred for many years, 
owing to imperfections in the banks and other parts of the work; 
and about the whole income was expended in additions, altera- 
tions, and repairs, and no dividend could be or was declared until 
February 1, 1819. From the year 1S1!) to the time the Boston 
& Lowell road went into operation, the receipts regularly in- 
creased, so that the dividends aiose from $10 to $30 per share; 
and no doubt in a few years without competition they would 


have given a handsome interest on the original cost. These 
were palmy days. In 1832 the canal people declared a dividend 
of $22, and from 1834 to 1837, inclusive, a yearly dividend of 
$30. The year the road went into operation, in 1835, the re- 
ceipts of the canal were reduced one-third, and when the Nashua 
& Lowell road went into operation in 1838, they were reduced 
another third, and up to the year 1843 they were not sufficient to 
cover the expenditures for repairs and current expenses. The 
future had a gloomy prospect. 

As the enterprise had the confidence of the business com- 
munity, money for prosecuting the work had been procured 
with comparative ease. The stock was divided into 800 shares, 
and among the original holders appear the names of Ebenezer 
and Dudley Hall, Oliver Wendell, John Adams, of Ouincy, 
Peter Brooks, of Medford, and Andrew Craigie, of Cambridge. 
The stock had steadily advanced from $25 per share in the fall 
of 1794 to $473 per share in 1803, the year after the canal was 
opened, and touching $500 in 1804. Then a decline set in, a few 
dollars at a time, until 1816, when its market value was $300 per 
share, with few takers, although the canal was in successful 
operation; and in 1814 the obstructions in the Merrimac River 
had been remedied so that canal boats locking into the river at 
Chelmsford had been poled up the stream as far as Concord, 
New Hampshire. 

Firewood and lumber always formed a very considerable 
item in the business of the canal. The Navy Yard at Charles- 
town and the ship yards on the Mystic River for many years 
relied on the canal for the greater part of the timber used in 
ship-building, and work was sometimes seriously retarded by low 
water in the Merrimac, which interfered with transportation. 
The supply of oak and pine about Lake YYinnepesaukee and 
along the Merrimac River and its tributaries was thought to be 
practically inexhaustible. Tn the opinion of Daniel Webster, 
the value of this timber had been increased $5,000,000 by the 
canal. Granite from Tyngsbdro and agricultural products from 
a great extent of fertile country found theii way along this chan- 
nel to Boston, while the return boats supplied taverns ami coun- 
try stores with their annual stock of goods. 


Yet, valuable, useful, and productive as the canal had proved 
itself, it had lost the confidence of the public, and with a few ex- 
ceptions of the proprietors themselves. The reason of this is 
easily shown. The general depression of business on account 
of the Embargo and War of 1812 had its effects on the canal. 
In the deaths of Governor Sullivan and Colonel Baldwin in 1808, 
the enterprise was deprived of the wise and energetic counsellors 
to whom it owed its existence. Lotteries were deemed neces- 
sary as a means to raise money, and in 181G the canal was voted 
financial aid. Constant expense was being incurred in the re- 
pairing of damages from breaks and the settling of the bed. 
Four directors were in charge, no one of them in full authority ; 
tolls were uncollected, canal boats were detained, for weeks 
sometimes, till the owners were ready to unload them. After the 
; death of Governor Sullivan, his son, John Langdon Sullivan, a 
stockholder in the company, and an engineer and business man, 
was appointed agent. He compelled the payment of tolls in cash 
before goods were delivered, charged demurrage .on goods not 
promptly removed, caused repairs to be promptly and thoroughly 
made, and so improved the business that in 1810 receipts rose to 
$15,000, and kept on increasing until in 181(> they were $32,000. 
In 1819 the first dividend was paid, the assessments at that time 
amounting to $1,455.25 per share on 800 shares, a total expense 
of $1,164,200. 

The aqueducts and most of the locks being built of wood 
required large sums for annual repairs, the expenses arising 
from imperfections in the banks and the erection of toll houses 
and public houses for the accommodation of the boatmen were 
considerable, but the heaviest expenses were incurred in opening 
the Merrimac River for navigation. 

From Concord, New Hampshire, to the head of the canal at 
Middlesex Village, the river has a fall of 123 feet, necessitating 
various locks and canals. The Middlesex Canal contributed to 
the building of the Wiscasser locks and canals at Tyngs Island 
$12,000; Union locks and canal, $49,932; Hooksett canal, 
$(),750; Bow canal and locks, $14,1 15; making a total of $82,797 
to be paid from the income of the canal. 


The canal as built was twenty-seven and one-quarter miles 
long, thirty feet wide at the surface, eighteen feet wide at the 
bottom, and four feet deep, with seven aqueducts over rivers and 
streams, twenty locks, and crossed by fifty bridges. Four of the 
levels were five miles each in extent, the rest of from one to 
three miles each. The total cost to 1803 was $528,000, of which 
one-third was for land damages. Much of the work was done 
by contract. Laborers received about $8 per month wages, and 
carpenters from $10 to $15 per month. The locks were eleven 
feet wide and seventy-five feet long, with an average lift of about 
seven feet, some being built of wood and others of stone. In the 
wooden locks the outside walls were of stone, the space between 
the inner and outer walls being packed with earth. In this way 
expensive masonry was avoided, though the cost of maintenance 
in after years was increased. 

[To be continued.] 


By Frank Mortiiner Hawes. 

AT THE BEGINNING of the eightenth century the Charles- 
town School, as we have shown, was under the charge of 
Thomas Swan, M. A. This gentleman was a graduate 
of Harvard College in the class ot 1089. lie was born in Rox- 
bury, September 15, 1609, and was the son of Dr. Thomas and 
Mary (Lamb) Swan, of that town. In 1690 lie was teaching in 
Hadley. After resigning at Charlestown he became Register of 
Probate for Middlesex County. December 27, 1692, he mar- 
ried Prudence, daughter of Jonathan Wade, Jr., of Medford, 
and they had four children, the births of three of whom were 
recorded in Charlestown. Mr. Swan died at the Castle in Bos- 
ton Harbor, October 19, 1710, aged 41 years. "He did practise 


physick & chyrtirg-erye at Castle William upward of 7 years, at 
12 pence per week for every 20 soldiers garrisoned there." His 
widow applied to the court for the payment of a sum of money 
which was her husband's due, and 20 pounds was voted in settle- 
ment of the demand. 

For his services in Charlestown Mr. Swan received the same 
remuneration (£-10) that was paid at the beginning of the previ- 
ous century. We have shown how this amount fluctuated from 
time to time. On account of a varying income arising from 
the school fund, it is hard to determine always what was the 
yearly cost of the school. The master's salary sometimes in- 
cluded the rent of a house for his family ; sometimes he was al- 
lowed to demand of his pupils a small tuition fee. Wood for 
the schoolhouse, in winter, was pretty generally supplied 
throughout all New England towns by the pupils' parents. 
The sum total of the master's earnings seems meagre enough, 
but we may believe that it averaged well with what was paid in 
neighboring communities. 

If the management of the school for a century showed but 
little change on its financial side, probably -the same might be 
said of the curriculum of studies. There is no evidence that the 
school question was a very vital one. The requirements for en- 
trance to Harvard College set the standard. Latin was gener- 
ally taught, but there is no mention of Greek on our records. 
We may believe there was little real progress in educational mat- 
ters, both within and without that charmed circle of scholars. 
Judging, however, from the character and achievements of the 
men who taught this particular school, ,we may well believe that 
their pupils did not lack mental and moral incentives to good 
work. In training and experience requisite for what was de- 
manded of them, these teachers must have been the equals of 
those in any other age. Compared with modern schools, those 
of that day were most deficient in school appliances. This is 
particularly noticeable in the poor school buildings. Charles- 
town had built two in the course of the century, wretched little 
affairs, both of which, not many years after their erection, were 
in need of constant repairs. 


The education of the daughters of the community is not 
mentioned. If they received any instruction in the so-called 
''dame" or "spinning" schools, it was at their own expense. 
Private schools also for the boys, as the records we have quoted 
intimate, received their share of : patronage, especially from the 
well-to-do. Not all the young men of Charlestown who gradu- 
ated from the college were trained in the town school. The sons 
of the poor had some slight attention, but the "youth," the sons 
of the better class, whether they Knew it or not, formed a "privi- 
leged order in the community. As yet there was no real demo- 
cratic equality in educational matters, and 110 free schools in the 
modern acceptation of the term. 

A list of those accredited to Charlestown, who graduated 
from Harvard College previous to 1701, may prove interesting. 
(From Bartlett's Address, 1813.) 

Comfort Starr, 1647, Nathaniel Cutler, 1(103, 

Samuel Nowell, 1(553, Alexander Nowell, 1064, 

Joshua Long, 1653 (?), Daniel Russell, 1009, 

Thomas Greaves, 1050, I>aac Foster, 1071, 

Zechariah Symmes, 1657, Samuel Phipps, 1071, 

Zechariah Brigden, 1057, Nicholas Morton, 10S0, 

Benjamin Bunker, 1058, Nicholas Lynde, 1690, 

Joseph Lord, 1091. 

A personal examination of the town records shows that 
from the opening of this century, almost without exception 
thereafter, the inhabitants of Charlestown, in town meeting 
assembled, discussed the welfare of the school and voted the 
annual appropriation for the same. Thws they were building, 
better, perhaps, than they knew, for upon foundations, similarly 
well laid, has risen, slowly but surely, the magnificent structure 
of our present school system. 

March 1, 1702-3. "Voted that the selectmen should pro- 
vide and agree with a schoolmaster at the Town's charge/' and 
May 3 8, "voted for the master's pay what shall be wanting 
besides that already granted to make up his sallery to £40 per 
annum, viz: £30." The same day it was "voted that Lt. Coll. 
Joseph Lynd, Samuel Herman, Esq. & Pea. Joseph Kettell be 


a committee to agree with a schoolmaster according to instruct- 
ions given, provided it be cither Mr. Thatcher, Mr. Whiteing, 
Mr. Whittemore, Mr. Tufts, Mr. -Anger, or Mr. "Burr. Attest, 
N. Dows, Recorder." 

January 21 following, this committee "made return that they 
had agreed with Mr. Thomas Tufts to keep sd school for one 
year to perfect Children in Reading & "to Learn them to write 
& Cipher, and to Teach them Cramer, for £40 per annum, & to 
begin his work the last day of June." 

At the next May meeting (170-1) £28 was voted "for the 
schoolmaster to make up his Sallery to £40." 

We have not attempted to verify the account of Thomas 
Tufts, to be found in Brook's History of Medford, and Wy man's 
Charlestown Genealogies. He graduated from Harvard Col- 
lege in the class of 1701. While there he received £40 per year, 
by the terms of his grandfather's . will. (This was as good as 
teaching school!) He was the son of Peter Tufts, Jr., (styled 
"Capt. Peter"). His mother's maiden name was Elizabeth 
Lynde. He was born in Medford, March 31, 1683, and married 
for his first wife, his cousin, Mary Lynde. She died September 
3, 1718, and the following January 29 he married Emma, daugh- 
ter of Captain Samuel Phipps. Thomas Tufts died December 
26, 1733. Wynian records the births of his children. 

December 25, 1704, it would appear that the school was 
again without a teacher, for it was "voted that the Selectmen be a 
committee, to provide a Cramer Schoolmaster for the Town 
forthwith as soon as possible." Accordingly, on the 29th they 
enlisted the services of Samuel lleymond, Esq., Capt. Samuel 
Phipps, and Mr. Joseph Whittemore, "who are to enquire of Mr. 
Battle and the fellows of the College concerning Mr. Wissell, 
whether he was a fitt man to be a schoolmaster for this town." 
These gentlemen reported, January 10, 1-705, "that all gave in- 
coridgment & declare their opinion that as to Mr. Wissell's 
Learning & other qualifications he was a fitt person for sd 
work." This report was accepted, and these three gentlemen, 
along with Mr. Ebenezer Austin as a fourth, were atrtnorized, 
any two of them, to treat with Mr. Wissell for a term of six 


Peleg Wiswell (Wiswall) was the son of Rev. Ichabod and 
Priscilla (Peabody) Wiswall, and was born February 5, 1684, at 
Duxbury, where his father was ordained and settled. He 
graduated from Harvard in 1703, and died in 1767. A printed 
genealogy of the Wiswall family may be consulted. If we re- 
member rightly, he taught many years in the North End School, 

March 4, 1706. It became the duty of the selectmen to pro- 
vide a schoolmaster for the town, and on the twenty-sixth they 
empowered Captain Samuel Heyman, Joseph Whittemore, Mr. 
Bateman, and Robert Wyer "to inquire & treat with Mr. Samuel 
Burr with reference to his keeping the school in this Towne & 
to make report at their next meeting." it is recorded that Mr. 
Burr entered upon his duties, at the rate of £40 per annum, 24 
April, 1706. 

At the May meeting Captain Heyman and Captain Phipps 
were empowered to secure workmen for repairing the meeting- 
house and the schoolhouse ; £18 was voted for this object. (At 
the same meeting Mr. Phipps was voted eleven pounds, four 
shillings for his services as town representative in 1705.) 

March 31, 1707. "It was agreed with Mr. Burr to keep the 
school one year, as last year, for £40. Also it was ordered that 
there be another table & two forms provided for the school- 

May 21, 1707, and May 17, 1708, the usual annual amount 
was appropriated for the schoolmaster. The vote was the same 
May 11, 1709, May 22, 1710, and May 23, 1711. 

Samuel Burr, A. M. (class of 1(197, Harvard), was the son 
of Major John Burr, of Fairfield, Ct. His mother's maiden 
name was Sarah Fitch. According to the printed family record, 
the date of his birth was April 2, 1679; that of his marriage to 
Elizabeth Jennor (Jenneij, June 19, 1707. A daughter, Sarah, 
born in Cambridge, married Thomas Edwards, of Boston. 
She received as legacy from her lather, a silver tankard, that was 
her great-grandfather, John Stedman's. Other children of 
Samuel Burr were John, Samuel, Jr., ami Rebecca. Against the 
name of the widow Wyman has recorded many land trans- 


actions. She left a will, dated September 20, 1754. The family 
genealogy says that Mr. Burr became one of the most famous 
teachers of his time. For twelve years he was master of the 
grammar school at Charlestow n. Me died while master there, 
August 7, 17.19, and was buried in Fairfield, Ct., where there is a 
monument to his memory. It states that he was educated at 
Cambridge under the famous William Brattle, and died while on 
a visit to his native place. We have made our account of this 
gentleman a somewhat lengthy one, for the reason that his term 
of service in Charlestown surpassed that of any of his prede- 

November 19, 1711. "The Selectmen ordered the Repair- 
ing the schoolhouse with all Necessary Reparations." 

At the meeting of 1712, May 21, we are allowed a little 
variety. "Voted for Schoolmaster's Sallery, viz.: the Gramer 
School £40 and £5 to be raised for the payment for some poor 
children at such women's schools as shall be allowed of by the 
Selectmen. Being for such Children whose parents are not able 
to bring them to school, which shall be determined by Captain 
Samuel Phipps & Captain Jonathan Dows." 

Or, as Frothingham, page ;M(>, has it: ''The teacher having 
requested that regulation might be made About the town school, 
it was voted That, whereas the school, being thronged with so 
many small reading children that are not able to spell or read as 
they ought to do, by reason of which Latin scholars, writers, and 
cypherers cannot be duly attended & instructed as they ought to 
be, Captain Samuel Phipps & Mr. Jonathan Dows were chosen 
inspectors & regulators of that matter. " 

May 20, 1713, the master's salary was increased to £50, and 
this was the sum paid for the five years following. In 1718 and 
until 1724, or for six years ensuing, his^ services were valued 
at £60. 

In 1713 a new building was erected on the Town Hill, near 
the old schoolhouse. Thus building number two did service 
thirty-one years, the same length of time as its predecessor; Es- 
timating a schoolhouse of that nine as able to withstand the wear 
and tear of a generation of pupils, we may expect to find this 
third building yielding to the inevitable about 1745. 


Much of the expense of this new building seems to have 
been covered by voluntary contributions, "one offering- a bell, 
others lime, brick, paint, or stone, and one a 'raising dinner.' " 
In May the town voted £50 for. this purpose, but as the com- 
mittee in charge had chosen for the location the spot where the 
"cage" stood, a site north of the meeting-house, a controversy 
arose and much opposition was expressed. July 14 all previous 
votes were nulled. Twenty-six citizens now entered a protest; 
a new meeting was called for August 17, and it was voted to 
build on the hill near the old house. The original committee 
then declined to serve. In consequence, the selectmen built the 
house without advisement. It was "30 feet by 20 feet and 12 feet 
stud, with one iloor of sleepers and one floor of joist aloft." 
The bills were approved the following February, and amounted 
to 104£. 4s. lid. This structure probably served also as a town 

But to us a more interesting entry is that of town meeting 
day, May 18, 1714. "Voted £4 for a schoolmaster to teach the 
children to write among our inhabitants near Reding." As far 
as we have been able to discover, this is the first appropriation 
for school purposes "outside the peninsula/' Every year there- 
after, until May 17, 1725, when this amount had increased to £9, 
a sum was thus appropriated for a sehoolmaster "at ye wood end 
of the town/' or "for a school of children for writing & reading 
at the upper end of the town." The petition of Captain Ben- 
jamin Geary and fifty-three others "to be sett off as a separate 
town" was presented on that day, and though their prayer was 
not granted at first, it resulted in a division of the township, aiul 
December 17, 1725, the new town of Stoneham was born. 

May 13, 1711), a second school without the peninsula was 
fostered, namely, at the indefinitely located Mistick?side, by an 
appropriation of £3. This amount was increased to £4 for four 
years following. In 172 I there seems to have been no vote foi 
this purpose, and May 17, 1 725, William Paine and seventeei 
others presented a petition to he set oil to Maiden. This request 
met the same fate as the other, hut no doubt the bounds of the 
town were adjusted later to the satisfaction of all concerned, for 
we hear no more of this school at "Mistick-side." 


These two outlying districts, while under the control of 
Charlestown, were managed by local committees, whose names 
are recorded from year to year. In a few instances we know 
who were the teachers and the length of their service. Thus, at 
the Stoneham precinct, William Hay taught for the months of 
February and March, 1721, for the E8. In 1722 George Taylor 
kept this school for three months, fourteen days, and overrun the 
appropriation fifteen shillings. In 1724 the teacher was Mr. 
Hancock, and for 1725 Ebenezer Parker. At Mistick-side John 
Brentnall kept the school from 8 January to 15 February for the 
£4 appropriated, and the next year Nathan Burnham rendered a 
similar service. The query naturally arises whether these out- 
lying districts maintained a school during the major part of the 
year at their own expense, or are we. to suppose that the short 
periods mentioned represent the sum total of a year's schooling? 
October 5, 1719. Among other things, it was voted to pro- 
vide a bell for the schoolhouse ; also that the schoolboys be per- 
mitted to sit in the three hindmost seats in the upper part of the 
front gallery. "They being there tinder my immediate care and 
inspection." So petitioned Robert Ward. 

May 2, 1720. "Ordered to get two small forms made for 
Mr. Robert Ward's schoolboys to sit on at the schoolhouse." 

November 7, 1720, this gentleman was chosen pastor of the 
church at Wenham, and ended his labors in Charlestown. The 
Rev. Robert Ward, of the class of 1719 (Harvard College), died 
iii 1732, at the age of seventy. He was admitted to the Charles- 
town church December 12, 1714. He seems to have been twice 
married, if we may trust Wyman's account, which also gives the 
names and dates of birth of his children. His father, Robert 
Ward, Sr., was from the county of Minister, Ire., and belonged 
to the frigate Nonsuch. 

December 5, 1720. "The selectmen agreed with Mr. 
Samuel Barrett, Jr., to keep the gramer school till March 1 
for £15." 

(To be continued.) 



By David Lee Maulsby. 

Three persons remain to be briefly considered. Mrs. Mary 
A. Pillsbury, the daughter of Edwin Leathe, and connected by 
blood with the Weston family of Reading and the Brooks family 
of Medford, was born in Lynnfield in 1838. She was married in 
18G3 to L. B. Pillsbury. Of the four children, Harry N. Pills- 
bury, it is safe to say, is known as a chess player throughout 
America and Europe. 

Mrs. Pillsbury early began to write poems, "for her own 
amusement and for the gratification of her friends." In 1888, 
shortly before her death, a volume of her pieces was published, 
called "The Legend of the Old Mill, and Other Poems." The 
title poem is a story of Mallet's old wind-mill, still looking down 
upon us from the Nathan Tufts Park, perhaps the most venerable 
landmark of our city. An Acadian maiden, fleeing from one who 
would have tarnished her honorable name, takes refuge, disguised 
as a man, in the old mill, by permission of the old miller. Her 
pursuer finds here there, runs up the steep ladder after her, but 
by a misstep falls through a hole in the floor, and meets a horrible 
death. The poems in this volume include rhymed anecdotes, 
verses suggested by the children, reflections of natural beauty, 
and thoughts on religious themes. 

Mrs. Katherine B. W. Libby, who died within a year (March 
7, 1902), was born and educated in Chelsea, but lived in Somer- 
ville since shortly after her marriage. Mrs. -Libby was remark- 
able for her patriotism, as well as her predilection for poetry. A 
"Daughter of the Revolution/' a member of this society, and of 
several social and philanthropic bodies, she bore her part in prac- 
tical affairs. Her writing, however, was to her* of supreme im- 
portance: she would drop instantly whatever she might be doing 
when a thought came to her, that she might not lose its appro- 
priate expression. Her writings have not been collected into 
book form. They include poems of nature, patriotism, and re- 


Spring, summer, and autumn arc celebrated in turn, the 
autumn garnering 

"The bearded grain in sheaves upon the wold, 
Like armored sentinels in coats of gold." 


"Through heaven's blue sea soft clouds of billowy fleece 
Float calmly onward to the port of peace/' 

The sinking of the Maine, which stirred the whole country, 
finds response in "War's Bugle Call" : — 

"Shall sons of freedom falter? 
Shall coward footsteps lag? 
Vile insult has been offered 
Our country's honored flag. 

v "March on! our country's heroes! 

War's bugle call will cease 
When stainless floats our banner 
In golden light of peace." 

Christmas and Easter are occasions of joy, one the joy of 
mortal life, the other of immortal: — 

"Ho for the merry Christmas tide! 
* Replete with warmth and cheer; 
Old Santa Clans, that jolly elf, 

Is swiftly drawing near. 
Then roll the Yule-log to the hearth, 

And light the fires aglow, 
With holly deck the festal board, 
Hang up the mistletoe." 

"Unveil thy blushing face ! 
Awake, glad Easter day! 
An angel from the sepulchre 
Hath rolled the stone away. 


"Ye bells, thy silver tongues 
These tidings sweetly tell, 
And from the wind-harp's throbbing strings 
Doth joy's glad anthem swell." 

It is clear that Mrs. Libby had a feeling for metrical lan- 
guage, and also, in her best work, a measure of that essential im- 
pulse which makes poetry what it is. 

A still more recent loss is that of Mrs. Lowe, who died May 
9, 1902. Mrs. Martha Perry Lowe tor many years was known as 
one of the most public-spirited women in this city, active in all 
good work. Her literary productions include a "Memoir" of her 
husband, Rev. Charles Lowe, who from 1859 to 18G5 was pastor 
of the First Unitarian church here, and afterward Seeretary of the 
American Unitarian Society. It is said that, in the midst of her 
numerous deeds of practical beneficence, Mrs. Lowe yet cherished 
the name of poet above all others. She has left four volumes of 
verse, and one longer poem unpublished, it is safe to say that, 
of the published books, "The Olive and the Pine" and "The Im- 
mortals" contain the poems by which Mrs. Lowe will be remem- 
bered. The former includes verses that are the outcome of 
travels in Spain, when her brother was secretary of the American 
Legation at Madrid. It also includes poems of New England. 
Among the former is a vivid description of a Spanish bull-fight, 
closing with this address to the reigning princess: — 

"Go, fair Infanta, dream 

Of bloody death to-day! 
Thy little children .seem 

To sec it when they pray; 
And, lo ! the nations far 

Do point, with warning hand, 
To yonder stains that are 

Upon thy native land !" 

The glimpses of picturesque Spain were not more lovely to 
the writer's young eyes than the homely beauties of New Eng- 


land, as the following lines from "The Road Over the Hills" will 
show : — 

"The squirrel quick hath run 
Across the track unto the old gray wall, 
Wreathed o'er with thorny vines, while brambles tall 
Beset it 'round; and 'math the summer sun 
Floats the bronzed butterfly until — behold! — 
His wings are turning all to burnished gold! 
And all day, in the wild young cricket's ear, 
The locust proseth ; but she will not hear. 
And, hark! a sudden stream of melody 
Comes quivering through the calm and silent wood; 
Tis the sweet thrush, far from the gazing eye, 
Who swelleth now her little gushing throat 
Alone for her dear mate and tender brood; 
And, ere the air hath caught that lovely note, 
'T is gone, and all the woods are dark and lone. 
And long they wait expectant of that tone, 
Nor know they where she sits, until again 
Her music runneth quick through all their bowers, 
And ceaseth. Ah ! no nightingales of Spain, 
That sing at night around Grenada's towers, 
So fondly all my ear and heart did gain." 

There is a reflection of considerable variety of experience in 
this volume. The organist in the Spanish cathedral, compelling 
into his notes the image of his dead wife, gives place to the vast- 
ness and awe of the desolate ocean seen from the shore at Bev- 
erly. Here is a German lesson, inspiring the young teacher with 
a hopeless passion for his fair pupil. There is a sympathetic por- 
trayal of a sick woman, waiting patiently from day to day, and 
from season to season, for the death that is so long in coming, 
but that comes at last. Glimpses of natural beauty relieve the 
sadness of such scenes. Take, for example, ''The Silent Way," 
describing a woodland path so thickly guarded that neither the 
winds of March nor the midsummer sun, nor even November 
frost, can enter. 


"But go at sweet Midsummer night; 
The pines with showers are spicy yet, 
The birches tremble at the set 
Of sun,. in pale, transfigured light, 
And low the savin clusters wet. 

"Go on between the tangled walls 
Of shining twigs, that drop the rain ; 
Then 'round the hill, to greet again 
The purple day before it falls, 
And breathe the clover on the plain." • 

Such bits from Nature occur on the background of country 
life. "The Quilting" and "The Husking" are two companion 
poems, through both of which a single love story runs, troublous, 
but with a happy ending. 

In "The Immortals," Mrs. Lowe celebrates heroes and 
friends that have gone from sight. Charlotte Bronte, Mrs. 
Browning, Chatterton, Shelley represent the English poets; 
Lowell, Emerson, Whittier, and E. R. Sill, the Americans; Chan- 
ning and Brooks and Charles Lowe, her husband, the ministers; 
to say nothing of the several friends commemorated, dearer than 
any stranger. Let us choose a few stanzas from "Sleepy Hol- 
low," written on the occasion of Emerson's funeral : — 

"They bore him up the aisle, 

His white hands folded meekly on his breast; 
He had the very smile 

He wore the night he gently sank to rest. 

"The words of love were said, 

We prayed and sang together; all was done; 
And then the way they led 

Along the street, the people following on. 

"We covered him with green :-~ 

He loved the hemlock branches and the pine, — 
And there he lay, serene, 

And yet not he, not there the spark divine. 


"Be thou not over sad, 

Dear ancient town in thy affliction sore; 
Think that what thou hast had 

Is thine to keep and give for ever more." 

I think I have read enough to show those of us who had not 
the privilege of Mrs. Lowe's acquaintance that she was a woman 
of genuine love for nature and for man, of fine perceptions, and 
of a considerable degree of skill in the art of verse-making. If 
her muse responds more readily to the melancholy than to the 
joyous note in human life; we can remind ourselves of what one 
of the greatest American poets and critics has urged: that a "cer- 
tain taint of sadness is inseparably connected with all the higher 
manifestations of true beauty." 

And so the end is reached of our roll of authors that have 
passed away. If we have not found rivals of the greater poets of 
America, if our story writers have still something to learn from 
those of England and France, surely a beginning has been made, 
and the end is not yet. The living writers of our city are as nu- 
merous, as industrious, as well equipped in endowment and lit- 
erary art as their predecessors. We will not boast of our achieve- 
ment, past or present. But it is safe to say that in history, in 
fiction, and in poetry, Somerville has authors whom she well may 
cherish. We need not name them; we know them. Let us ex- 
pect that they will try themselves by high standards, that they will 
not be content with what tliey have already done, that they will 
strive to lift our city among those rare historic places where 
men and women have lived who have uttered in the best way the 
best that was in them. 

Officers of Sottiervilie historical Society. 



First Vice-President, 

Second Vice-President, 

Third Vice-President, 

Recording Secretary, 

Corresponding Secretary 


Librarian and Curator, 

Charles D. Elliot, 

J. 0. Hayden, Chairman, 


L. Roger Wentworth, 

historic Sites. 

John F. Ayer. 

Luther B. Pillsbury. 

Levi L. Hawes. 

Oliver Bacon. 

Mrs. Elizabeth F. Hammond. 

Mrs. V. E. Ayer. 

Seth Mason. 

Alfred M. Cutler. 

Anna P. Vinal. 

Charles D. Elliot. 

Alfred M. Cutler, Chairman, 
Mrs. Helen M. Heald, 

Luther B. Pillsbury. 

essays and TIddresses. 

John F. Ayer, Chairman, Charles D. Elliot, 

William E. Brigham, Seth Mason, 

Mrs. V. E. Ayer. 

Library and Cabinet. 

Levi L. Hawes, 

Miss Marriette E. Eddy. 


Benjamin F. Freeman, Chairman, Charles W. Colman, 

Albert L. Haskell. 

Press and Clipping*. 

Miss Anna P. Vinal, Chairman, Miss M. Agnes Hunt, 

Miss Lucy M. Stone, Miss Mary A. Haley, 

Miss Marion Knapp. , 


Sam Walter Foss, Chairman, Frank M. Hawes, 

Sara A. Stone, John F. Ayer, ex-officio. 

military Kccords. * 

Col. Edwin C. Bennett, Chairman, Levi L. Hawes, 

John H. Dusseault, Alfred M. Cutler. 


Mrs. Elizabeth F. Hammond, Chairman, Mrs. V. E. Ayer, 

Mrs. F. De Witt Lapham, 

SotiKWille historical Society 

Season of 1903-1904 

TUFTS HOUSE » = 78 Sycamore Street 




November 4 — The Story of Land on Barberry Lane 

Aaron Sargent 

November 18— Queen Victoria and Her Relations with the 

American People 

Charlks, Lowell 

December 2 — John S. Kdgerly and His Home on Winter Hill 

Mrs. Helkn M. Despkaux 

December \ 6 — Old Middlesex and New 

Levi S. Gould, Melrose 
January 6 — In and About Union Square Before the War 

Charles D. Eujot 
January 20 — Authors' Readings 

Edwin Day Sibley 
Sam Walter Fo'SS 
February 3 — Feeding an Army 

John M. Woods 
February \ 7 — Incidents in a Long Life in the Public Service 

Jairus Mann 
March 2 — Thomas Brigham, the Puritan — An Original Settler 

WmiAM E. Brigham 
March \6 — Gregory Stone and Some of His Descendants 

Miss Sara A. Stone 
April 4 — Annual meeting 




Vol. II. JANUARY, J904. No. 4. 


THE DEDICATION of the Prospect Hill Park, October 
29, 1903, called attention to one of the most significant 
historic locations in our local limits, and one of the most 
significant historic events in our national history. The raising 
of the flag on Prospect Hill, January 1, 1775, was an event that 
looms larger and larger as time goes on. It was a small, but 
sturdy people shaking the fist of defiance at an old and powerful 
empire. Subsequent events disclosed that this was no idle 
threat. A young nation really announced itself at this time. 

Prospect Hill has not attained the renown which its signifi- 
cance deserves. It should be a spot of historic pilgrimage sec- 
ond only to Bunker Hill and Lexington. But it has received 
very meagre attention at the hands of the general historian, and, 
until lately, has been held in but slight local estimation. This 
condition of affairs will now continue no longer. We now see 
the events which happened on this height in their true perspec- 
tive, and their significance is felt and appreciated. The Somer- 
ville Historical Society will, undoubtedly, from time to time, un- 
earth new facts and forgotten events in connection with this 
place. It furnishes a theme worthy of much investigation, and 
new historic data of significance may be expected.' But even if 
no further historic facts are brought to light, Prospect Hill can- 
not,, in the future, lapse into the comparative obscurity of the 
past. It must remain one of the beacon heights in American 

Prospect Hill Park, as it is at present arranged, is one of the 
most beautiful parks in the state for outlook and for general 
beauty of arrangement. But at first it was a very unpromising 
location, unsightly in the extreme, and by no means an orna- 


mental adjunct to the scenery. The artistic laying out of the 
park was the work of much thought and careful consideration. 
This was accomplished through the efforts of the City Engineer, 
Ernest W. Bailey. The tower that surmounts the height was 
planned in his office. The imposing beauty of this structure 
grows upon the observer, and has been highly praised by archi- 
tectural experts. 

The work of preparing suitable inscriptions for this tower 
was delegated to the Somerville Historical Society, which in 
turn turned it over to the Committee on Historic Sites. This 
committee consists of Messrs. J. O. Hay-den, Charles D. Elliot, 
and Luther B. Pillsbury. The committee, after much study, de- 
cided upon the following inscriptions: — 


ON JUNE 17, 1775 








JUNE 17, 1775, TO MARCH 17, 1776. 

HERE ON JULY 18, 1775 



















FROM NOVEMBER 7, 1777, TO OCTOBER 15, 1778 





IN 1862 








The following is the inscription for the inside of the tower: — 











No excuse is necessary for suspending the regular issue of 
this publication to commemorate an event like this. The regular 
features of this magazine will be resumed with our next issue. 
This is a Prospect Plill number. 

For the abstract of the exercises and addresses of the dedi- 
cation we are indebted to the Somerville. Journal. 

Promptly at 2 o'clock, Thursday, October 29, 1903, to the 
music of the band and a salute from the gun of the naval brigade, 
Mrs. Lilla E. Arnold, of 28 Vina! avenue, unfurled a handsome 
new American flag from the top of the observatory. .Mrs. Arnold 
is a direct descendant of Captain Jonathan Poole, who was "the 
standard bearer of the first flag designed and floated by the colo- 
nists in America," about 1658. The flag was presented to the 
city by Prospect-hill Chapter, Daughters of the Revolution, of 

After a selection by the band, prayer was offered by Rev. J. 
Vanor Garton, pastor of the West Somerville Baptist Church. 


The programme included: Sirfging, "The Flag," II. K. Hadley, 
by the pupils of the high schools, led by S. Henry Hadley; in- 
troductory address by Mayor Edward Glines ; address, His Ex- 
cellency Governor John L. Bates; singing (a) "The Breaking 
Waves Dashed High/' (b) "Baltic Hytrin of the Republic," by 
the pupils; address, His Honor Lieutenant-Governor Curtis 
Guild, Jr.; singing, "The Star-Spangled Banner/' (with accom- 
paniment by the band); remarks, by John F. Ayer, president of 
the Somerville Historical Society ; poem, by Librarian Sam 
Walter Foss ; music, Eighth Regiment band; singing, 


Mayor Glines said in part: — 

Somerville appears to-day in a dual role. She is both guest 
and hostess. She is honored, and, in turn, she bestows honor. 
She invites His Excellency the Governor and His Honor the 
Lieutenant-Governor of this great commonwealth to participate 
in these ceremonies. She honors them by a reception such as 
only so patriotic a city can give, and feels herself honored in- 
deed by the unusual compliment of the presence of both of these 
distinguished statesmen. 

She is honored by the presence of those into whose care she 
has entrusted her keeping; by the presence of these old men, 
who have watched her grow from infancy to youth, and from 
youth to a strong young womanhood ; by the divine supplication 
in her behalf; by the singing of the two hundred pupils from her 
surpassing high schools ; by the song of her poet; by the stirring- 
strains of the band; and by the military display that is to her a 
reminder of days that were not days of peace. 

And, too, she is honored by this vast concourse of people — 
the outpouring of her citizens to celebrate* an event in her his- 
tory. In return, she honors us each and all by granting to us to 
step upon this hallowed soil and to breathe in the patriotic 
atmosphere of this occasion. 

We believe these exercises will be carried out in manner 
most befitting; but however grandly we might have planned. 


however nobly we might have wrought, it would not have been 
overdone, for, to do more than justice to so altogether worthy 
a theme — that were an impossibility. 

It has been aptly said, "Prospect Hill stands upon the same 
plane as Bunker Hill, Lexington Green, Concord Bridge, and 
Plymouth Rock." 

The British trooped by the foot of this hill on that memor- 
able night when Paul Revere 's warning notes rang all along the 
way from Charlestown to Lexington and Concord. 

Less than twenty-four hours afterward, its base was again 
skirted by the redcoats, as they beat their hasty retreat towards 
Charlestown, and it was here, 

"From behind each fence and farmyard wall," 
that the hottest shot and swiftest-flying bullets of their whole re- 
treat accelerated their hurrying movements. 


Governor Bates spoke as follows: — 

On behalf of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, I extend 
her greetings to her citizens in Somerville, and her congratula- 
tions on the dedication to-day of this historic spot and granite 
tower to liberty-loving people everywhere. Fellow citizens, you 
have done well. You have recognized the relation which the 
fortifications erected here bear to (lie history of our nation. The 
work done on Bunker Hill showed that the patriots of 1775 
could fight. The work done here showed that they would never 
give up; that they could stand, but could not run. 

So it came to pass while redcoats filled the town of Boston, 
while British warships thundered in the harbor and on the river, 
while the red-coated soldiers flung; their defiance from yonder 
Bunker Hill, that upon this mount patriots plied. the shovel, 
minutemen tramped the redoubt, and Lee, and Creene, and Sulli- 
van, and Putnam planned bulwark.-, of revolution, and Washing- 
ton raised the thirteen stripes of Union, and all the time, sheltered 
behind the citadel of this hill, a liberty- loving dependent people 
were becoming a liberty-demanding independent nation. 

Behind the bulwarks erected here — bulwarks of sand and 


mi min i i j Mjbs 





men and of men with sand — was laid the foundation of a new 
commonwealth, was born a new nation — the mightiest of any 
age. Here the very wind tells of devotion and of struggle, and 
here may this monument ever stand to show not only the appre- 
ciation in which you hold the deeds of the fathers, but also that 
it may be the witness that the generation of to-day values its 
magnificent heritage, and is true to the ideals of those who be- 
queathed it. 

Congratulations, then, again to Somcrville that it possesses 
this interesting historic park, and congratulations on having a 
citizenship with the patriotism, the public spirit, and the gener- 
ous heart to conceive and carry out this noble memorial. 


Mr. Guild said in part: — 

The monument we meet to dedicate is fittingly enough a 
suggestion of the battlemented turrets of a flag-tower. Here lay 
the embattled lines that for the last time saw a foreign foeman 
tread the soil of Massachusetts. Here for the first time was 
hoisted the first flag of an American Union. 

Not here but on a neighboring height was stored the 
powder of the Middlesex towns so desired by General Gage, but 
though his soldiers on September 1, 1774, did secure "212 Half 
Barrels of Powder' belonging to King George, they were too 
late to secure the rebel powder, for Medford, the last of all the 
towns to act, had carried hers away just forty-eight hours before. 

From this historic height, now shorn, alas, at the command 
of commerce, of its yet loftier peak, the country folk of the Mys- 
tic valley saw this first hostile demonstration of the Revolution. 
Hither, too, came the British raging with the march and fight 
that had lasted well-nigh twenty-four hours on that historic 
nineteenth of April, for the battle that began on- Lexington Com- 
mon ended on the slopes of Prospect Hill. The British flankers 
surprised the American minutemen, firing upon the column in 
the street below. The boys fled before the redcoats. James 
Miller, of Somerville, alone showed that the gray hairs of age 
may outdare at times even the red blood of youth. 


"I am too old to run." he said, and for the first time this 
historic spot was stained with the blood of the white man, where 
the old man died the death of a soldier and a gentleman. 

From that day till the end of the siege of Boston the spot 
where Somerville's first blood was- shed became the very Mount 
Pisgah of the American line. 

Here for the first time after the first battle of the Revolution 
the officers of the Massachusetts forces were summoned. Here 
with the first guard mount of the Revolution on the evening that 
followed the Concord fight the siege of Boston began. Here, 
after the Pyrrhic victory of the English at Bunker Hill, came the 
men who retired only when the lack of powder left them with- 
out the means to fight. 

Here they made their stand and invited the further attack- 
that never came. The scarlet tide that overflowed the crest of 
Charlestown paused before this barrier that since has never 
known upon its crest the flutter in triumph of an alien flag. 

The first flag to ily from the redoubt on Prospect Hill was 
not that of Massachusetts. Putnam had built the works, and 
Putnam, though a son of Massachusetts, hoisted on July 18, 
1775, the flag not of his native but of his adopted state; the flag 
of the state which, except Massachusetts, contributed most to 
the Revolution. It was Connecticut's flag with its "Qui Trans- 
tulit Sustinet" and the motto of all the revolutionists, "An 
Appeal to Heaven/' 

Nor were all the troops that gathered here even from New 
England. Riflemen of Virginia and Pennsylvania and Mary- 
land camped upon these slopes, and in this first serious contest 
of our country against a foreign uiemy, as in the last, when we 
crossed the seas to fight a foreign foe, stood together not as 
Virginians or sons of Massachusetts, but as> Americans united 
against the common enemy. 


John F. Ayer's address was as follows: — 
The tower is completed, outwardly, at all events. Still 
there remains to be placed in position the historical tablet. The 


committee has placed this in the hands of the Somerville Histori- 
cal Society to formulate. That very important and agreeable 
duty the Historical Society will cheerfully and conscientiously 

In concise and dignified English, it will tell the story, that 
all, young and old, may readily comprehend the reason of its 
erection, and be impressed with the lesson the monument itself 

I fear we here do not the half appreciate the historic value 
of our surroundings — do nor half comprehend or value the 
riches, historically speaking, of our city, even, to say nothing 01 
the wealth of such material in the region included in the original 
Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay Colonies. We do well to mark 
all historic spots, and to call attention to these grand features in 
the landscape of our city. 

As the most interesting colonial object outside of the Old 
Mill at Newport, R. I., the Powder House stands a monument to 
the liberality of one of our honored families. It and the park sur- 
rounding it deservedly attract the interest and admiration of all 
lovers of the historic, both native and the stranger within our 

Quarry Hill and Prospect Plill are surely immortalized. 
Why not immortalize the spot where the Blessing of the Bay 
was launched by erecting a fitting monument there? 

Why not, Mr. Mayor and gentlemen of the city govern- 
ment, consider its claim for recognition? The Blessing of the 
Bay was the forerunner of that great shipbuilding interest that 
made Medford and New England famous — the forerunner, also, 
of the American navy, for it became the first armed cruiser of 
America, and although of tiny proportions — only twenty-one 
tons — it did good service along the shores of New England in 
protecting the interests of the settlers — the traders and the 
fishermen — from the attacks of Indians and others on the high 

Mr. Mayor, when the history of Somerville shall appear, 
one of the most interesting chapters. I fancy, will refer to 
"Somerville During the Siege of Boston." The whole of our 
area was virtually a military camp. The line of earthworks ex- 


tended across the town from Mystic river to the Cambridge 
line, thence on to Dorchester; our own citizens, as well as the 
other undisciplined yeomen from all the back country, lined the 
trenches and stood behind the guns! 

In some way the exact line of these entrenchments and these 
forts should be permanently marked. I would suggest a line of 
steel flagstaffs at regular intervals from which each day Old 
Glory should float; from the top of these poles at night parti- 
colored incandescent lights might appear, and so by a display 
of flags by day and a line of electric lights at night, the way might 
be outlined, and thus authoritatively made plain to us to-day and 
to the generations which shall follow us. In connection with 
this observatory, a display of this land would prove a great at- 
traction and would draw many to our city to enjoy the magnifi- 
cent outlook from the tower, and to note the location of the old- 
time earthwork across the city. 

With the placing of the tablet, the monument will be com- 
pleted, and stand as a sacred memorial of the great struggle of 
1775 and 177G, which resulted in the evacuation of Boston, and 
ultimately in the independence of the colonies. 

May the lesson which it teaches be taken home to all our 
hearts, may our interest in things historical and in all the means 
for the promulgation of historic truths, and our veneration for 
the noble men of former times and their patriotic deeds, increase 
from year to year, and our pride in the good name of our city 
and its historical objects and landmarks endure even unto the 

Poem by Sam V/alter Foss. 

Full many men must meet and mix > 

To form a nation. On this height, 
On that first day of 'sevvuty-six, 

A nation rose in sight. 
And on this height stood men the peers 
Of God's strong souls of all the years. 


Time-tempered men from farm and shop, 

The disciplined recruits of toil, 
The fruitage and the chiefest crop 

Of Freedom's sturdy soil. 
A strong deed, in an hour of need, 
Finds strong men equal to the deed. 

"Who is this chieftain from the South 
Strong in his youth yet sternly sage?" — 

"Fame placed her trumpet to her mouth 
And blew his name to every age, 

And still that blast blows on and on 

That peals the name of Washington." 

"What is that tall white shaft of pine?" 
"That shaft when many years have gone 

Shall be a nation's lifted sign 

For centuries to look back upon ; 

To loom through perils, victories, fears, 

A beacon for a thousand years." 

"But see! there floats an unknown flag, 

A flag unseen, unknown before; 
Let England's might tear down the rag 

That dares to flaunt upon this shore — 
Aye, snatch the insolent shred away — 
'Tis but the banner of a day!" 

"Ah no; by many breezes fanned, 

That flag shall float o'er field and town, 

And strong, ah, strong, must he the hand 
That tears that lifted banner down. 

Old thrones shall reel, old realms shall die, 

But still that flag shall wave on high." 

"But who are these plain plowmen here, 
These wielders of the axe and spade, 

In awkward regimental gear 
Drawn up in loose parade?" 

"Why these are empire builders, man, 

The greatest since the world began." 


"Who are these cohorts from the wood?" 

'They are the vanguard hies of fate, 
Proud men of red, imperial blood, 

High, regal souls, and great, 
The children of a haughty name, 
The sires of states and sons of fame/' 

"And here to-day breaks on this height 

The sun-burst of a nation's morn, 
That unknown banner greets the light 

That sees an empire born, 
And these wide ranks that round us stand 
Are fathers of a mighty laud." 

They flung their banner to the wind, 

They flung it in the face of foes, — 
And thus they published to mankind 

That human nature grows, 
And that a youngling state had grown 
Too big for insults from a throne. 

That flag now floats from many a height, 
And waves its word from crag to crag, 

Beyond the day, across the night, — 
The sunrise and the sunset flag ; 
. That flag is blown by every breeze, 

Across the world and all its seas. 

And as it waves from slope to slope 

From sea to sea, or far or near, 
Ah, may it never shame the hope' 

Of those strong men who placed it here, 
But be, on sea or shore unfurled, 
The banner of the hope of the world. 

< - 

< £j 



There was no more interested reader of the account of the 
dedication of Prospect Hill Park and Memorial Tower, we ven- 
ture to assert, than the venerable Dr. Putnam, of Salem, and 
at the request of the president of the Somerville Historical So- 
ciety, he has prepared the following article for publication. It is 
a subject which has long interested him, and out of the fullness 
of his heart he writes as he has done. He here makes some 
limited use of his pamphlet discussion of the command at Bunker 
Hill, which was published several years ago, and was highly 
praised and approved by eminent historians, scholars, statesmen, 
lawyers, military men, and others. The edition having long 
since been exhausted, he hopes to issue another by and by, to 
which he will add a copious Appendix, with various letters and 
several more illustrations. The work bears the title of "Israel 
Putnam- and Bunker Hill," as the following is entitled "Israel 
Putnam and Prospect Hill." 

John F. Ayer, Esq., President Somerville Historical Society: — 

Dear Sir : I thank you very much for the copy you sent me 
of the Somerville Journal, containing a full account of the dedi- 
cation, on the twenty-ninth of October, of Prospect Hill Park 
and Memorial Tower. The very appropriate and eloquent 
speeches, and all the proceedings of the occasion, as reported in 
that paper, are seen to have been most interesting and admirable, 
and you all are greatly to be congratulated on your signal suc- 
cess in such a commemoration of the important events of your 
local history that occurred at the outbreak of the Revolutionary 
War. I only regret that I could not be present, then and there, 
it would have been such a real delight to me. 

It gives me much pleasure to comply with your request for 
some facts about General Israel Putnam* and his occupancy of 
Prospect Hill, additional to those which were briefly stated by 
the speakers on the day of celebration. Let me say at the outset 
that I have not the honor of being a descendant of the old hero, 
yet from such study as 1 have been able to make of his life and 
character, I have too much admiration for him and too deep a 


sense of the incalculable value of* his service to his country and 
ours, not to join with others in seeking- to do ample justice to 
his memory, especially as regards the noblest work or deeds of 
his illustrious career. Mayor Glines, Governor Bates, and 
Lieutenant-Governor Guild made various fitting allusions to him 
in their addresses, but at a time when so much must have 
crowded upon their minds from the recorded annals that came to 
view, one can well understand how crisp and short must needs 
have been the mention of even the chicfest matters. I can only 
hope to fill out to some extent certain things that were so perti- 
nently and effectively said ; and the better to present what I 
would fain write, and to make the story as complete as I can or 
may under the circumstances and for the present purpose, let me 
quote here the allusions to which I have referred, and which I 
think may well be repeated in this connection. 

Said Mayor Glines : "On the evening of June 16, 1775, this 
soil again resounded with the tramp of soldiers, as the gallant 
Colonel Prescott and a thousand men under his inspiring lead 
swept by on their way to Bunker Hill. It was here that on the 
night of June 16 General Putnam, the gallant 'Old Put' of 
ploughshare and wolf's-den fame, began throwing up the in- 
trenchments which soon became the citadel, of the works running 
from the Charles to the Mystic, and the very stronghold of the 
besieging American army." And he also said : "Prospect Hill 
is especially dear to us, not for the [act that its occupation by 
Putnam doubtless saved Cambridge, so vital to the enemy, and 
perhaps the very country; not that here it was, a month almost 
to a day after Bunker Hill was fought, that 'an American flag 
was thrown to the breeze before an enemy/ the scarred ensign 
of the Third Connecticut Regiment,. 'Putnam's flag'; not that 
here for many weary days were encamped i he, Massachusetts and 
Rhode Island troops of General Nathaniel Greene, nor because 
it was here that many of the troops of Burgoyne's surrendered 
army were quartered after Arnold's strategy got the better of 
them at Saratoga; not for records Ike these, but because here, 
on the first day of January, 1776, on which the new Continental 
Army was organized in the presence of our great and good 


Washington, there was hoisted the flag that by its stripes of alter- 
nate hues proclaimed the cementing of the thirteen American 
colonies in a common bond against British oppression. This 
record," Mayor Glines declared, "belongs to the sublimest page 
in the history of the hill." 

I quote, also, from the speech of Governor Bates, who said : 
"So it came to pass that while redcoats filled the town of Boston, 
while British warships thundered in the harbor and on the river, 
while the red-coated soldiers flung their defiance from yonder 
Bunker Hill, upon this mount patriots plied the shovel, minute- 
men tramped the redoubt, and Lee, and Greene, and Sullivan, 
and Putnam" (some reversal of the order of the names needed) 
"planned bulwarks of revolution, and Washington raised the thir- 
teen stripes of Union, and all the time, sheltered behind the 
citadel of the hill, a liberty-loving, dependent people were becom- 
ing a liberty-demanding, independent nation." 

And Lieutenant-Governor Guild said: "The first flag to fly 
from the redoubt on Prospect Ti ill was not that of Massachusetts. 
Putnam had built the works, and Putnam, though a son of Mas- 
sachusetts, hoisted on July 18, 1775, the flag, not of his native 
state, but of his adopted state, the flag of the state which, except 
Massachusetts, contributed most to the Revolution. It was 
Connecticut's flag, with its 'Qui transtulit sustinet,' and the motto 
of all the Revolutionists, 'An Appeal to Heaven/" And Mr. 
Guild added: "Colonel Stephen Moylan, of Moylaivs Dragoons, 
a witty Corkonian in the American army, gives a comic picture 
of 'Old Put/ the only thing, he says, that did not thaw during 
that sloppy winter. 'With solemn ♦mien/ says Moylan, '"Old 
Put" tramped amongst his men, answering every question with 
"Powder! Powder! Ye gods, give us powder!" Mr. 

Guild seems to connect this story with "these slopes" of Pros- 
pect Hill as a "vivid picture of the scene," but Colonel S. A. 
Drake, in his "Old Landmarks of Middlesex,'' with somewhat 
more probability or truth transfers it to Lechmere Point in East 
Cambridge at a time in the dead of winter, 1775-'76, when Put- 
nam was there constructing works of defense, and when, owing 
to the "heavy lire" of the British and to "the frozen condition of 


the ground, which made the labor one of infinite difficulty, it was 
not until the last days of February that the redoubts were com- 
pleted." The severity of the season must have lessened in Janu- 
ary to permit the operations thus to go on to success, and to jus- 
tify these words of the same month from an officer whom the 
colonel thus quotes : "The bay is open, — everything thaws ex- 
cept 'Old Put.' He is still as hard as ever crying out for 'Pow- 
der! Powder! Ye gods, give us powder!' ' : It may have been 
a frequent cry with the General, and no wonder; but we doubt 
very much whether he raised it on the "slopes" of Prospect Hill 
in the "sloppy winter" of June and July, 1775, when all accounts 
attest that only then was he ever there, and that the weather was 
extremely hot. An Essex county man once presented, with 
other charges, a bill to his neighbor for the use of a horse and 
sleigh for a June ride, whereupon the latter said that he would 
see if he had jotted down the circumstance, but he could hardly 
remember that he had ever taken a sleighride in June. We can 
better credit the statement, ".Everything thaws here except 'Old 
Put.' " 

I copy thus fully these various allusions to General Putnam's 
service on Prospect Hill, all the more because they are a juster 
treatment of the patriot warrior than that which certain writers 
have meted out to him in their accounts of the Battle of Bunker 
Hill. Some facts with reference to that momentous event seem 
to me to be necessary here, as showing more, clearly in what ca- 
pacity and by whose authority he led his broken army, after the 
engagement, to Somerville, and what was the significance of his 
command and work on and around its famous height. 

All know with what alacrity Putnam, as soon as he heard of 
the Battle of Lexington, left his plough in his field at Pomfret, 
his Connecticut home, and flew horseback £o Cambridge and 
Concord, where, after an all night's ride of a hundred miles, he 
arrived the next morning, and immediately consulted with the 
patriot committees and authorities there. His military exploits 
for ten years in the French and Indian wars had given him great 
renown as a brave, energetic, and resolute soldier, full of resources 
and love of country. He had already shown that he was an 


ardent and active friend of the cause of the colonies, and his rank 
was now that of lieutenant-colonel. His coming was hailed by 
all with greatest enthusiasm, and was worth, says Colonel Drake, 
the historian, an accession of ten thousand men to the move- 
ment on foot at that critical juncture. It was decided that a 
large New England or American army should be raised, and a 
stirring, appeal was speedily sent broadcast to this end; and as 
the quota from Connecticut would be about six thousand men, 
Putnam hurried back to that state to put matters in train for 
their swift recruitment, organization, and march. As soon as he 
had done this, he hastened his return to Cambridge before them 
with a company of his own, and with a drove of sheep for the 
suffering patriots of Boston. He was stationed by General 
Ward, the commander-in-chief, at Cambridgeport, nearest Bos- 
ton, and at a most exposed and important point in the siege of 
that city, and the hardy yeomanry of Massachusetts, Connecticut, 
New Hampshire, and Rhode Island straightway came rushing in 
large numbers to headquarters, in response to the call. It was 
decided by the Committee of Safety, when they learned 'that the 
enemy was about to sally forth from Boston for an attack, that 
Bunker Hill should at once be fortified; and accordingly they 
"recommended to the Council of War that the above-mentioned 
Bunker's Hill be maintained by sufficient force being posted 
there." As Putnam was plainly the ruling spirit'of the Council, 
he probably had much to do with designating Prescott and his 
thousand Massachusetts and Connecticut men for the service. 
He was anxious to bring the foe out of their pent-up 
quarters, and fight them at once on more "equal terms/' 
He had just been made brigadier-general by his adopted state, 
and he was now made general superintendent of the detachment. 
Said Colonel Samuel Swett in his story of the Battle of Bunker 
Hill, which was published in is 18, and was declared by Alden 
Bradford, the historian of Massachusetts, "The Christian Exam- 
iner," and other highest authorities, to be the most correct and 
perfect of all the earlier accounts of the engagement, whatever 
additional details have since been gathered: "General Putnam, 
having the general superintendence of the expedition, and the 


engineer, Colonel Gridley, accompanied the troops." General 
Seth Pomeroy, it may be stated, also went with them, and this 
was on the evening- of June 16. As they reached the base of 
Bunker Hill, there was a memorable halt, when an animated 
discussion took place as to which height they should fortify, that 
or Breed's Hill just beyond it; or, in case they should intrench 
on both, which of the two they should begin with first. Con- 
trary to the expectations of the Committee of Safety, they finally 
concluded to go on and occupy Breed's, "nearer Boston," doubt- 
less having been instructed to do so by the Council of War, with 
permission to act as they should think best, as they drew near 
the place and considered all the circumstances of the situation. 
There, as they reached the summit, Putnam, Gridley, and Pres- 
cott laid out the ground and formed the plan for the historic 
earthwork or redoubt which the men with vigorous toil erected 
during the night on the spot where now Bunker Hill Monument 
stands. As the enemy saw early the next morning what had 
been done during the darkness, they began a lively fire at the 
fort from their ships on the river and from the opposite shore, 
while later they landed troops from Boston at Moulton's Point 
(Moreton's or Morton's), the northeastern end of the peninsula, 
with the evident intent to march along the Mystic, and so flank 
Prescott and his garrison at the redoubt. To intercept them, 
the provincials of the several states who bad come upon the 
ground hastily made a barricade of a rail fence that stretched be- 
tween the Mystic and Breed's Hill by stuffing it with new-mown 
grass that lay plentifully in the held near at hand, and here be- 
tween the two points were lined, also, regiments, or parts of regi- 
ments, as they continued to arrive and to be assigned their 
places by General Putnam; Start; and Reed, with their brave 
men from New Hampshire, as the left win;;' by the Mystic, with 
Prescott and most of his detachmcnl at Breed's as the right 
wing, while along the middle wa\ \eie stationed General Pome- 
roy and Captain Knowlton, with their respective Massachusetts 
and Connecticut forces. As the proud and formidable column 
of the foe came on, the serried arraj of the patriot yeomanry met 
it in fiercest combat, and hurled it hack uiuki the lead of Putnam. 


who now had assumed the supreme command, by right of supe- 
rior rank, and had taken his post near the eastern base or lower 
declivities of Bunker Hill, where he could best survey the scene 
and order the action of the day; riding, as he did, this way and 
that along the lines to encourage and strengthen his soldiers in 
the hour of conflict; or hastening to the rear in the lull of battle 
to hurry on the expected and needed, but tardy, reinforcements. 
Enraged at their first discomfiture, these fine old veterans of the 
British army, notwithstanding their heavy loss, dashed them- 
selves once more against the Yankee farmers and craftsmen at 
the fence where the slaughter of the battle was most terrible, and 
whence they were driven back a second time with greater loss 
than before, "the dead lying on the ground as thick as sheep in 
a fold." Stung to madness by such successive defeats, the grena- 
diers and light infantry of the foe rallied for another assault, and, 
turning a little to the left with fresh accessions, made a desperate 
rush for the redoubt, and soon captured it, after a stout and 
heroic resistance by Prescott and his garrison, many of the latter 
being killed by the victors, while the rest of them, with the com- 
manding colonel himself, made their escape and went their way 
to Cambridge. 

Meanwhile the heroes at the fence, exhausted from fighting, 
suffering from heat, and decimated in numbers, seeing that the 
fort was in possession of the enemy, and that they themselves 
were in danger of being flanked and captured, began to retreat 
and to fall into disorder and confusion. Putnam-was now at the 
height of his tremendous power and energy. With voice like 
thunder, and with almost superhuman action, he commanded and 
entreated his compatriots, — some say even with oaths, — to make 
one stand more for battle and victory; but all in vain. They 
were too much weakened and demoralized for the attempt, so 
that not their commander's prodigious exertion itself availed to 
bring order out of chaos and make them renew the strife; and 
then it was that he saw that the effort was hopeless, and, gather- 
ing what of the army was left, and joining certain fresh arrivals 
to it, he marched the whole over the Neck to Prospect Hill, there 
to intrench in full sight of tin toe, and like a lion at bay to be 


prepared for another encounter. It was one of the wisest and 
best deeds of his life. But for that, the British might in the 
hour of their triumph have pursued the frightened and flying- 
host, and made Somerville, Cambridge, and other towns their 
prey; but with such an obstacle in their path, they did not 
choose to undertake the venture. Well said Mr. Guild, "Here, 
after the Pyrrhic victory of the English at Bunker Hill, came the 
men who invited the further attack that never came"; and said 
Governor Bates, "The red-coated soldiers flung their defiance 
from yonder Bunker Hill." It was all they could do. What 
might possibly have been the disastrous consequences, had not 
Putnam occupied Prospect Hill as he did, is intimated in words 
already quoted from Mayor Glines. At any rate, the service is 
seen to have been one of immense importance, and it was one 
entirely of the general's own choosing. It was at a moment of 
fearful excitement and disorder, when neither General Ward nor 
any other authority could be consulted, and when the destinies 
of an empire seemed to tremble in the balance. In that dread 
crisis Putnam acted solely on his own responsibility. Says Dr. 
Increase N. Tarbox in his remarkable "Life of Israel Putnam" 
(1876) : "We have his own express statement on this point, made 
to the Committee of Safety not long after, at a time when he had 
the burden of some grievance on his mind. He says, Tray, did 
I not take possession of Prospect Hill the very night after the 
fight on Bunker Hill, without having any orders from any per- 
son? And was not I the only general officer that tarried 
there?' " And this action by General Putnam was not less wise 
and of his own accord than it was courageous and full of his pro- 
verbial grit. Pie was not one to fly from the field in the hour 
of danger with the scared and discouraged officers and shattered 
regiments, and hasten to Cambridge to report with Prescott that 
the day was lost. He chose to take his post near the Neck, and 
dispute the passage of the victors and face the consequences. 
Who would have done it if lie had not : 

And it all goes to show that his was the supreme command 
at Bunker Hill, as it was on Prospect Hill. Bancroft, who was 
a warm friend and partisan of Prescott, admits that the Genera] 


"assumed" it on the retreat, saying that, "acting on his own re- 
sponsibility, he now for the first time during the day assumed the 
supreme direction. Without orders from any person, he rallied 
such of the fugitives as would obey him, joined them to a detach- 
ment which had not arrived in season to share in the combat, and 
took possession of Prospect Hill, and there encamped that very 
night/' And with the historian this was the last of "Old Put." 
But where, in God's name, was Prescott? If he was the supreme 
commander in the battle, who but he at that awful crisis in the 
fortunes of the day should have taken the "supreme direction" of 
affairs, "rallied" the breaking and wasting forces that had fought 
like demigods all along that open and extended line, and twice 
vanquished the haughty and powerful foe, and then have led 
them off the field to a place of safety? What! when the fierce 
fight at the fence had saved him and his men from capture, fly 
from his fort as soon as chance permitted, and hie to head- 
quarters in the distance, and leave an "interloper" and "inter- 
meddler," a "coward" and a "traitor" to assume the "supreme 
direction" and take charge and care of the central and remaining 
body of the army, who were tired and torn with almost incredible 
service for their country! And was that the military conduct 
for one who had been chosen as the chief commander? Or did 
he or any one else ever cause the alleged rude and reckless 
usurper of his supreme command to be duly punished for his law- 
lessness and audacity? And why not? Why? Because he was 
chief at the retreat and at Prospect Hill, just as he was chief at 
the beginning of the battle and all through it. He "assumed" 
nothing after the fight that he had not assumed before it and the 
fact that he was supreme after the conflict ended is incontestable 
proof that he was supreme from the first ; and this lends an in- 
creased interest and attractiveness to the Somerville eminence 
and its surroundings. For, without him and his selection of the 
place for encampment, and his "supreme direction," what would 
have become of the recent celebration, and who would have ever 
heard the eloquent speeches of Mayor ('.lines, Governor Bates, 
Lieutenant-Governor Guild, and Mr. Aver? Would the flag of 
the crosses and the stripes, to say nothing of the Connecticut 


banner, have been unfurled on the hill as they were, and would 
Washington have visited the spot as he did, and would all the 
noted warriors and their soldiers who have been referred to have 
trod the soil, and would the beautiful park ever have been laid 
out, and the memorial tower ever have been built? Would Som- 
erville have been what it justly claims to be to-day? 

My letter is already much too long, and yet there are certain 
other associations of the hill of which I fain would write. Put- 
nam had with him while he was first stationed at Cambridgeport 
two sons, Israel and Daniel. Israel was in the battle, as well as 
his father. Daniel, who rose to be a prominent and highly es- 
teemed citizen of Connecticut, wished also to* accompany the ex- 
pedition, thinking he might be of some use, though but a boy 
of fifteen. His father thought he could get on without him, and 
directed him to stay behind at the Inman House, his own head- 
quarters. The son soon heard of the fight, and was anxious lest 
his father might have been hurt or killed, but was presently told 
that he was safe at Prospect Hill, and, accordingly, he went 
thither at once to find him. Long afterward he gave this ac- 
count of the discovery: "There I found him about ten o'clock 
on the morning of June 18, dashing about among the workmen, 
throwing up intrenchments, and often placing a sod with his own 
hands. He wore the same clothes he had on when I left him 
thirty-eight hours before, and affirmed that he had never put 
them off or washed himself since, and we might well believe him, 
for the aspect of all bore evidence that he spoke the truth." 
Surely the scene must have somewhat resembled that of Lech- 
mere Point, to which reference has been made, let go the 
weather and the thaw. 

Putnam and his chief command on that hill were immedi- 
ately and fully recognized by General Ward and the authorities 
at Cambridge, as if in that capacity he had brought out from the 
furnace of affliction the remnant that should be saved. Ward 
quickly reinforced him, sending him two days after the battle 
not only "half of the Connecticut Eorces," but also "one-half by 
companies" of the regiments of Colonels Nixon, Brewer, Scam- 
mans, Gerrish, Mansfield, Woodbridge, and Gardner. So tells us 


the Orderly Book of Nathan Stow, from which we cull several 
particulars more. The General Orders for July 4 stated: That 
Hon. Artemus Ward, Charles Lee, Philip Schuyler, and Israel 
Putnam, Esq., are appointed major-generals of the American 
army by the Continental Congress, and due obedience is to be 
paid to them as such; and, That all the troops of the several 
colonies which have been raised, or may hereafter be raised, for 
the support and defense of the liberties of America are- received 
into the pay and service of the Continental Congress, and are 
now the troops of the United Provinces of North America, and 
it is hoped that all distinctions of colonies will be laid aside. The 
General Orders for July 1(5 by Major-General Putnam com- 
manded : That to-morrow morning precisely at six o'clock all 
officers and soldiers in the camp attend on Prospect Hill at the 
usual place of prayers, there to hear read by Mr. Leonard (chap- 
lain) the manifesto of the Hon. Continental Congress, containing 
their reasons for taking up arms. Putnam was still in command 
on Prospect Hill July 18, when he instructed the officers to warn 
the soldiers to be on parade at four o'clock, and be feady for 
action at once, as by some movements on Boston Common it 
appears that they (the enemy) have some intention of coming 
out. Such proclamations on Prospect Hill, thus early giving ex- 
pression to the advanced views of freedom and independence for 
America are a lasting honor to Somerville, and are full worthy 
to be remembered in connection with Washington's visit there, 
when January 1, 1776, the flag of "alternate hues" was hoisted 
in token and publication of "the cementing of the thirteen Ameri- 
can colonies in a common bond against British oppression." 
Nearly six months before, as we have seen, the spirit of liberty 
was there equally manifest and equally comprehensive in its 
sweep. Good for Somerville, we say again; and pleasant it is 
to remember that, while Putnam and Greene were there in com- 
mand, they were associated together with the "Father of His 
Country" in the same purposes, aspirations, and endeavors, and 
all were of one mind and heart. 

Prospect Hill encampment presented a busy scene under 
Putnam's command, as afterward, Washington's first visit to 


the encampment was on the seventh of July, five days after his 
arrival at Cambridge. In General Orders he here approved the 
sentence of the Court that had dismissed Captain John Callender 
from further service in the ranks as an officer for alleged 
cowardice in the battle, but subsequently, when the soldier had 
greatly distinguished himself for courage and fidelity as a volun- 
teer, he caused the stain to be removed from all the army records. 
Three days before this visit was the "mournful occasion" of the 
funeral obsequies of the brave Bunker Hill hero and martyr, 
Colonel Thomas Gardner, whose regiment belonged to Putnam's 
forces, and now joined in fitting honors to the memory of their 
late and lamented commander. 

There was constant fear of some approach and attack on the 
part of the British. The encampment was not a little annoyed 
by discharges from their floating batteries on the river. While 
the work of intrenching still went on, there were daily drills or 
parades, with due inspection of arms and ammunition, and sen- 
tinels were ever on duty, so that at any moment all might be 
ready for action. Sergeants or others were sent forth from 
time to time to find out and report the state of things at Cam- 
bridge, or with the British forces at Bunker Hill ; parties, also, 
for orders from headquarters and for supplies from the neigh- 
borhood. Grass was collected for the cattle, soon to be slaugh- 
tered as food for the soldiers. Officers were appointed to num- 
ber and name such members of the regiments as were sick or 
wounded or dead, or were on furlough or had deserted, whether 
they had been in the battle or not. The kitchens were examined 
and kept neat and clean, and strict care was taken that the men 
should be properly provided for at their meals, while there was 
a close watch of the sale or use of intoxicating liquors, with a 
severe punishment of any who should tempt ^others to partake 
of them. Cursing and swearing were sternly forbidden, and 
moral and patriotic lessons were taught and enforced; yet 
Nathan Stow's Orderly Book abounds with many a record which 
tells of courts-martial for shameful offenses. Among the thou- 
sands there on the hill all was stir and vigilance, though there 
was no occasion for actual fighting; vet ii is clear that General 


Putnam knew well not only how to build fortifications, but also 
how to command, maintain law and order, care for all, make 
right the rule, and win admiring confidence and love. 

In what I have written I have said much about Bunker Hill, 
as well as Prospect Hill, because they really go together as mak- 
ing a single whole. They are so vitally connected with each 
other that in the best sense they cannot be considered apart. 
The one story runs into- the other, and the latter derives its true 
significance from the former. It is quite curious or noteworthy 
how afraid Prescott writers are of the bond between the two, 
and how prone they are to stop with the battle and to make little 
or. nothing of what took place just after the retreat. Frothing- 
ham says in a foot-note that Putnam "retreated with that part of 
the army that went to Prospect Hill and remained here through 
the night!" Dr. George E. Ellis, warm friend and grandiloquent 
eulogist of Prescott, and mortal enemy and vehement abuser of 
Putnam, leaves the latter out of the account altogether, after 
having caricatured his matchless service at the rail fence, and 
simply says this: "The British lay on their arms all "night at 
Bunker's Hill, discharging their pieces against the Americans, 
who were safely encamped upon Prospect Hill at the distance of 
a mile!" H. B. Dawson, historian and Englishman, who could 
never forgive Putnam for rending the American colonies from 
the British empire as he thought he did, and calls him "traitor" 
and whatever else of the kind, does not even mention him or 
Prospect Hill after his long account of the engagement! The 
reason for all these slights or all this belittling or obscuration is 
obvious. The "supreme direction" which Bancroft allows Put- 
nam in the retreat, and which he certainly exercised then and on 
Prospect Hill, and the recognition ami reinforcements which he 
received from headquarters while he was, there, are so strong an 
argument that he was chief before, that such men as Frothing- 
ham, Ellis, and Dawson do not like to follow him thither and 
face the inevitable conclusion that he was also supreme com- 
mander of the American forces in the Battle of Bunker Hill, as 
he himself repeatedly said he was whenever occasion required 
him to say it ; and as innumerable soldiers who fought under 


him then and there, and military officers, statesmen, governors, 
lawyers, jurists, poets, scholars, clergymen, journalists, and col- 
lege presidents and professors have said it for him for a hundred 
and twenty-eight years. 

The battle ended, he was the one hero of the day. Im- 
mensely popular before, lie was more than ever a favorite now. 
The country resounded with his praises. Toasts were drunk to 
his honor on both sides of the Atlantic. He and Washington 
dined often together, and were most intimate friends, and he 
who was "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his 
countrymen" gave his veteran companion successively the high- 
est commands he had at his disposal ; as when, under his 
authority, Putnam, with his troops, entered and took possession 
01 Boston as soon as the British had been compelled to leave the 
city, and as afterward he was chief in the New York campaign, 
at Philadelphia, and elsewhere. Nor do we find that after the 
battle Washington or the public took any particular notice of 
Prescott whatever. Yet Prescott was a brave and faithful sol- 
dier, though previous to his command of the redoubt on Breed's 
Hill he had seen but little military service. Later he served 
under Putnam in New York, and undoubtedly performed his 
duty there as nobly as he had done it at the fort. During the 
war he quit the army and returned to the quiet of his own home 
at Pepperell, where he lived and died, respected and honored to 
the last by his friends and fellow-citizens and by the people at 
large. But the contention that when he was colonel of one of 
the regiments at Cambridge, just before he went with his detach- 
ment to Breed's Hill, and when he was surrounded by as many 
as eight generals and thirty colonels, a large proportion of 
whom, Putnam included, had had much experience and had 
gained high merit and distinction in previous wars, Prescott, 
with his then limited service and fame, was selected out of them 
all, and jumped over the heads of all these noted and scarred de- 
fenders of their country, to be the supreme commander in the 
daring enterprise close, at hand, and in whatever conflict it might 
involve, is one of the most preposterous claims that ever chair 
lenged the attention or assent of sane or intelligent minds. To 


those who are inclined to credit the claim, it may kindly be 
hinted that colonels do not command their superiors in rank, to 
which it may be added that Colonel Prescott gave no order to 
General Putnam, from the beginning to the end, but Putnam 
ordered Prescott and forces all along the line, and was obeyed. 
And Putnam it was, who, while Prescott was safe in his fort, and 
never left it until it was taken by the British, braced the provin- 
cials in the open to the long' and perilous contest by his in- 
domitable spirit, taught doubling England and the world once 
for all that Americans could and would fight for their liberties, 
whatever the cost, and made a seeming defeat a real and in- 
estimable victory. It made sure the final triumph, and Frank- 
lin, when he heard of it, wrote to his English friends, "England 
has lost her colonies forever/' and she had. 

What do all these incontrovertible facts mean? What is the 
one just and sure interpretation of them? Let us follow no false 
guides, however learned, eminent, or sincere they may be, but 
answer the question for ourselves. From time immemorial such 
men have been on the wrong side in almost every important con- 
troversy, historical, scientific, or what not. Time has proved 
how mistaken they were, whether the subject was slavery, witch- 
craft, the Ptolemaic theory, the story of Adam and the Fall, or 
any other. Majorities, however imposing and influential, are 
not always in the right. The history of Bunker Hill and Pros- 
pect Hill, in all its fullness, is a matter of greater moment than 
some seem to think. Each one must study it impartially as best 
he can, and decide for himself what is the truth it teaches, as- 
sured that the truth will finally prevail. 

A. P. Putnam. 

Salem, December 30, 1903. 

100 HON. AUSTIN BELKNAP. [January, 


The death of Hon. Austin Belknap at the residence of his 
daughter, Mrs. Roswell C. Downer, in Roxbury, on the ninth of 
December, 1902, removed from the activities of life one who had 
for nearly fifty years been a useful and honored citizen of Somer- 
ville, a man of unblemished reputation in private and public life, 
a man in whom there was no guile, who hated deceit, and whose 
life was open, frank; and honest. 

Mr. Belknap was born in Westboro, Mass., July 18, 1819, 
the son of John and Ruth (Fay) Belknap. His early education 
was obtained in the district school of Westboro and the 
Worcester Academy, taking a course in civil engineering in the 
latter institution. After a brief experience in railway construc- 
tion, he came to Boston in 18-13, entering the produce business, 
in which he continued until the day before his death, covering a 
period of nearly sixty years. 

Mr. Belknap became a resident of Somerville in 1853. He 
was a man of studious habits, and his early education was supple- 
mented and broadened by a careful and judicious course of read- 
ing and private study, accumulating in a few years a valuable 
private library. After he was fifty years of age, he began the 
study of French, soon learning to read in that language with 
ease. He took a lively interest in municipal affairs, serving the 
town efficiently and intelligently as a member of the School 
Committee in '62, 'G3, and '64; as a member of the last three 
Boards of Selectmen in '69, '70, and '71. He was a trustee of 
the Public Library in '73 and '7-1, and was* the third mayor of the 
city, serving two terms in '7G and '77. During his term of ser- 
vice as mayor, he was actively identified with two important city 
improvements, the extension of a main line of sewer from Kent 
street, via Beacon street, Somerville avenue, Mossland street, 
and Elm street to Davis square; and the completion and dedi- 
cation of the Broadway park, which was begun under the ad- 
ministration of Mayor Ftirber. To all the important work done 
by the city under his administration Air. Belknap gave his per- 
sonal attention, preventing the possibility of jobbery and tin- 

1904.] HORACE CARR WHITE. 101 

necessary expense to the city, securing as good work as might 
be done for a private individual. While Mr. Belknap protected 
the city from dishonesty and corruption in carrying out public 
improvements, he was broad and wise in his policy. 

Mr. Belknap married Miss Jane P., eldest daughter of the 
late Holloway and Frances (Read) Brigham, of Westboro, by 
whom he had three children, two of whom survive him, Mrs. R. 
C. Downer and Robert W. Bell nap. Mrs. Belknap died several 
years before her husband. 

For many years Mr. Belknap was active in Free Masonry, 
being a member of John Abbot Lodge, the Somerville Chapter, 
and the De Molay Commandery. But, while fond of social life, 
his chief recreation was found at his own fireside with his beloved 
books. As we close this hurried outline of a busy life, a life that 
was not lived in vain, let us quote from Pope, his favorite 
author : — 

"Unblemished let me live, or die unknown, 
O grant an honest fame, or grant me none/' 


BY the death of Dr. H. C. White, on Thanksgiving Da\, 
November 2G, 1903, Somerville lost one of her best-known 
and most esteemed citizens. In 1874, when he moved 
from his native state of Maine, he made his home among 
us, and from that time, by the practice of his profession, by his 
services on the school board, and in his more public capacity as 
a representative in the state legislature, he served this community 
most wisely and faithfully. The high regard in which he was 
held by his fellow-citizens was manifested by the large concourse 
of people that attended his funeral, one of the largest ever known 
in Somerville. In recognition of his high services as a public- 

]02 HORACE CARR WHITE. [January, 

minded citizen, and as a fitting tribitte to his memory, the flags 
of the city, by the order of the mayor, wen displayed at half- 

The funeral was at the Baptist Church on Cross street, of 
which Dr. White was a consistent and devoted member, and the 
sermon by his pastor, the Rev. John R. Cow , was in full sym- 
pathy with the occasion. No words are more appropriate for 
this brief sketch of Dr. White's career than those of Mr. Gow, 
from whom we would quote the followingj — 

"All the problems in the relations between man and man 
might be settled if all men would live as wisely, independently, 
bravely, and unselfishly as Dr. White has lived, and in all the 
issues there is, after all, but one issue for each of us : whether we 
will be as true to the example of this good friend of ours as he 
has ever been to us, and to his Great Examiner. 

"We thank God, then, for a man who has given us a good 
opinion of humanity. We thank Him that ihe message of the 
Master has been exemplified before our eyes in one who has 
sought to do unto others as he would that they should do to 

As Dr. White was a member of the Somerville Historical 
Society, it is fitting that the pages of its quarterly publication 
preserve this outline of a life which nearly reached the allotted 
limit of three-score years and ten. 

Horace Carr White, the son of Gideon and Rhoda 
(Springer) White, was born in Bowdoin, Me., January 
26, 183G. His family early removed to Litchfield, Me., 
where he attended the Liberal Institute, but on account of 
trouble with his eyes, he was unable to earn out his plans for a 
college course. He graduated from the me. Heal department of 
Bowdoin College in 1859, and after practicing* in Lisbon Falls, 
in 1862 he entered the army as assistant surgeon of the Eighth 
Maine regiment. When he returned, much broken in health 
from overwork and exposure, he remained ai Lisbon Falls until 
his removal to Somerville in 1874. For twelve years he was a 
valuable member of the school board, and lie served in the 

1904.] M. AGNES HUNT. 103 

Massachusetts House of Representatives for the years 1897-'98- 
'99-1900. During - this time he was on various important com- 
mittees, as the one on metropolitan affairs, of which he was chair- 
man two years. Dr. White was identified with all educational 
and temperance measures in which the city was interested. His 
work in leading the movement which resulted in the establish- 
ment of the Somerville hospital is well known to the people of 
this city. Besides being a member of the above-mentioned 
church, he belonged to several military and medical organiza- 
tions, and various secret orders. 

Dr. White married Miss Mary L. Randall, of Harpswell, 
Me., who, with two daughters and a son, survives him. The 
home is on Perkins street. 


By Anna Parker Vinal. 

M. Agnes Hunt, a member of this society, was born in 
Southampton, N. Y., in 1839, and died in Somerville November 
24, 1903. 

Her father, Rev. Samuel Hunt, preached for many years in 
Franklin, Mass. ; he was one of the Abolitionists, and for uphold- 
ing the cause of the negro was dismissed by his parish. From 
him and her grandfather, who gave money to found Amherst 
College, she inherited her strong patriotism; this enabled her as 
a young girl to send the money given her for a long-coveted 
black silk dress to the Sanitary Commission when they called 
for funds during the Civil War. 

She was educated in tin- district and select schools of Frank- 
lin, the English and Classical School of Walpole, Mass., and at 
Ipswich Female Seminary; -he exeelled in mathematics. 

At the age of twenty- two she was called upon to manage her 
father's household, and also to attend to the duties in parish work 

104 MARY M. McKAY. [January, 

devolving upon the minister's wife, with the result that her health 
gave way for a time. 

She was privileged, as the daughter of an ardent Abolition- 
ist, to meet many noted people, not only at her father's house, 
but at the home of Asa Fairbanks in Providence, a firm friend of 
Rev. Mr. Hunt. Through her father, she met Wendell Phillips, 
Charles Sumner, William Lloyd Garrison, Vice-President Henry 
Wilson, and many others. In 1873 she came to Somerville, 
where she identified herself with the Prospect Hill church, and 
for a number of years was actively interested in its work, filling 
several important positions. 

During the Spanish war she was untiring in working for the 
relief of the soldiers. She belonged to the Volunteer Aid. Her 
patriotism led her to be interested in the Historical Society from 
its formation, and she was a constant attendant at the meetings. 
Miss Hunt was an extremely energetic woman; her cheerfulness 
during her last illness made the sick room a place where it was 
a delight to be. Many friends mourn her loss. 


In the death of Miss Mary M. McKay of 254 School street, 
the Historical Society has lost a faithful and devoted member. 

Miss McKay was the daughter of the late George and Jane 
McKay of Charlestown, where she was born sixty years ago. 
For the past fourteen years she had made her home with her 
sister, Mrs. James G. Hinckley, of this city. Her death occurred 
after a five weeks' illness, on Saturday, August 29, 1903. Be- 
sides Mrs. Hinckley, two other sisters, Mrs. Jacob T. Hutchinson 
and Miss Eliza J. McKay, also a member of this society, and a 
brother, George E. McKay, superintendent of the Boston mar- 
kets, are left to mourn her loss. The interment was in the family 
lot at Mt. Auburn. 

Miss McKay, by her kind and cheerful disposition, and by 
her many other admirable qualities oi mind and heart, won the 
esteem and friendship of a large circle of friends in this vicinity. 


"Accidence, The" 
Adams, John 
Adams, William 
Alden, John 

Aldersey Street, Somerville 
American Navy, The 
Ames Street, Somerville 
Amherst College 
Amoskeag, Locks of 
Andersonville, Ga. 
Andros, Sir Edmund 

Appleton, , Cross Street 

Arlington, Mass. 

Army of the Potomac, The 

Arnold, General Benedict 

Arnold, Mrs. Lilla E. 

Atlantic Monthly, The 

Auburn Ave., Somerville 

Austin, Ebenezer 

Ayer, John F. 42, 

Ayers, George W. 

Ayers, John 

Ayers, Sally D. 

Ayers, Sally (Page) 

Ayers, William 

Bacon, Mrs. E. A. Lathrop 

Bacon, Mrs. E. A. Lathrop, Poem 

Bacon, Rev. Henry 

Bacon, Rev. Henry, Memoir of 

Bacon, Henry, Jr. 

Bailey, Ernest W. 

Bailey, Joshua 

Bailey, Mrs. Joshua 

Bailey House, The, Perkins Street 

Baird, Historian 

Baldwin, Loammi 52, 

Ballou, Hosea, President Tufts Co 

Bancroft, Historian 

Barberry Lane 

Barrell, Joseph 

Barrett, Samuel, Jr., Schoolmaster 

Bartlett's Address, 1813 


Bates, Gov. John L., Address by 

Bay State Colony, The 
Bedford, Mass. 
Belknap, Hon. Austin 
Belknap, John 
Belknap, Robert W. 
Belknap, Ruth (Fay) 
Bell, Dr. Luther V. 
Berlin, Germany 
Bern on, Gabriel 
Billerica, Mass. 
Billerica Bridge 
Billerica Mills 
Binney, Captain Martin 
Binney, Sally (Ayers) 
Bird, Charles, Jr. 
Bishop of London 
Blessing of the Bay, The 
Blodgett, Daniel 
Blodgett, Samuel 















77, 80, 85, 93 

■22, 23 

22, 23 


22, 23 

22, 23 

8, 9, 10, 25 

s of 




9, 10 






53, 54, 55, 57 

liege 20 

92, 97 



, 1720 or, 


' 77, 78, 

80, 87, D2, 93 

100, 101 




52, 54 

22, 23 

Bolbee, France 


Bolton, John, Homestead of 


Bonair Street, Somerville 


Bonner Ave., Somerville 


Bonner, " Grandma" 


Bonner, William 


Boston Commercial Bulletin, The 


Boston Courier, The 


Boston Evening Transcript, The "' 
Boston & Lowell R. R. 



Boston & Maine R. R. 


Boston Latin School 

20, 32 

Boston Traveler, The 


Bow Locks and Canal 

50, 57 

Bowdoin College 
Bowdoin Family, The 



Bowdoin, Me. 


Bowles, John 


Brackenbury, John 


Brackenbury. Katherine 
Bradford, Alden 



Bradford, William 


Braintree, Mass. 

19, 33 

Braslow Schoolhouse, The 


Brattle, William 


Breed's Hill 

90, 98 

BrentnalL John, Schoolmaster, 172(5 


Brewer, Col. 


Brigden, Zechariah 


Brigham, Frances (Read) 


Brigham, Holloway 


Brigbam, Jane P. 


Broadway Park 


Broadway, Somerville 

43, 14 

Brooks, Elbridge Gerry 


Brooks, Elbridge Streeter 


Brooks, Elbridge Streeter, Fiction of 


Brooks, Elbridge Streeter, Works of 


Brooks Family, The, Medford 


Brook.,, John 


Brooks's History of Medford 


Brooks, Peter 


Brooks.. Phillips 


Brown, Captain, House of 


Brown, Rev. Joseph 


Bull Run, Battle of 


Bunker, Benjamin 


Bunkei Hill 

73 — 911 

Bunk,! Hill, Battle of 14,88 

, 89, 97 

Bunker Hill Monument 


Burgoyne, Cen. 


Burnham, Nathan, Schoolmaster, 1727 


Burr, Major John 


Burr, John Samuel, Jr. 


Burr, Rebecca 


Burr, Samuel, Schoolmaster, 170 J 

02, 63 

Burr, Sarah 


B) HM, 1 .otd 


Callendar, Captain John 

t lambridge, Mass. 15, 82, 86, 88, 89, 




. 96, 98 

Camn Parole. 


Can il 1'ioject, Result of 


Canal System, Plan of 





Canterbury, England 
Carlisle, Mass. 
Carr, Florence E. 
Carr, Martin L. 
Carter, John 
Carter, Sarah (Stowers) 
Castle William, Boston Harbor 
Central Fire Station, Somerville 
Central Hill, Somerville 
Central Street, Somerville 
Charles, Duke of Orleans 
Charles River 
Charlestown, Mass. 
Charlestown, Bounds of 
Charlestown, Burning of 
Charlestown, Cemetery in 
Charlestown Church 
Charlestown Grammar School 
Charlestown, History of, Wyman 





Charlestown, Incorporation of 
Charlestown Navy Yard, The 
Charlestown Neck 14 

Charlestown School, The 
Charlestown School, First 
Charlestown Schools, Early Records of 
Charlestown Schools, Regulations Conce 

Charlestown Schoolhouse 
Charlestown School in the 17th Century 
Charlestown Schools in the 18th Century 
Charlestown, Separation of 
Charter Street Burying-Ground 
Cheever, Elizabeth 
Cheever, Ezekiel, Schoolmaster, 1G61 

19,20,21,32, 37, 
Cheever, Ezekiel, Death of 
Chelmsford, Mass. 19, 53, 54, 

Chelsea, Mass. _ 42, 

Chester Ave., Somerville 42, 

Chesthunt leyes, England 
Christian Examiner, The 3, 

Christian Messenger, The 
Christian Souvenir, The 
Christ's Hospital School, England 
Clay Pits, The, Somerville 
Clark, Joseph 
College Hill 

Committee on Historic Sites, Somer- 
ville Historical Society 
Committee of Safety, The 89, 90, 

Concord Bridge 
Concord Fight, The 

Concord, Mass. 52, 

Concord, N. H. 50, 51, 52, 50, 

Concord R. R. 

Concord River 52, 53, 54, 

Condit, Sears 
Coney, John 27 

Connecticut Flag, The 80, 87, 93 

Connecticut River 4;> 52 

Connecticut, 3rd Regiment of 86 

Continental Army, The 86 

Continental Congress, The 95 

Coos Falls 50 

Corpus Christi, Cambridge, England 16 

Council of War, The 89, 90 

Court Manual, The 15 

Craigie, Andrew 5,J, 56 

" Cranberry Pickers, The " 6 

Cromwell's Falls 50 

Cross Street, Somerville 44, 45 

Cross Street Universalist Church 26, 27 

Cutler, John, Jr. ;s5 













Cutler, Nathaniel 

Cutler, Timothy 

Cutler, Edward 

Cutler, Fitch 

" Dame Schools," Cliarlestown 

Danforth, Samuel 

Dartmouth Street, Somerville 

I). A. R., National Society of 

D. R., Prospect Hill Chapter 

Dauphirty, France 

Dawson, H. B., Historian 

De Mallet, Antoine 

De Molay Commandery 


Dorchester, Mass. 

Downer, Mrs. R OS well C. 

Dows, Captain Jonathan 

Dows, Nathaniel 

Drake, Colonel S. A. 

I hidley, Governor 

Duxbury, Mass. 

Edwards, Thomas 

Elector of Saxony 

Elliot, Charles D. 

i'.llis, Rev. George E., D. D. 

Emerson, Rev. John, Schoolmaster, 1691 

Emerson Genealogy, The 
Emerson, Nathaniel (Thomas) 
Emmanuel College, Cambridge, England 
English and Classical School, Walpole, 

Everett Ave., Somerville 
Everett, Edward 
Fairbanks, Asa 
Fairfieldi Conn. 
■Faneuil Family, The 
I aimer, Mrs. Ann 
1' ernandina, Fla. 
1' islier, Caroline M. 
Fisher, Mary 
Fishkill, N. Y. 
Fitch, Sarah 
Flanagan, Lewis Cass 
Flanagan, Lewis Cass, Works of 
Fletcher, Hope 
Fletcher, John 
Fletcher, William 
Flint Street, Somerville 
FossL Sun Walter, Poem by 
Forster Schoolhouse, The 
Fort Hill, Boston 
Fosdiek, Margaret 
Fosket, Jonathan 
lister, Anne (lirackenbury) 
Fo tei, Isaac 

Foster, lion. Richard, Jr. 
Foster, William 
Fowle, Eliza 
P. ye, William 
Fi xcroft, Thomas 
Francis I . of France 
Franklin, Benjamin 
Franklin Grammar School, Somerville 
I ranklin, Mass. 
Franklin, Statu, of 
Franklin Street, Somerville 
Fia/.ar, General Douglas 

eral i »ouglas, Works of 
h ".1, Ch trlestown 
Free Si hools, Cliarlestown, Grant in Aid of 
French* hurch'in Boston, The 
French ami Indian Wars, The 
Frigate Nonsuch 


11, 12 






100, 101 


38, 41, 61 












• 23 











77, 82, 83, 84 





















I .1 


Frost, Mrs., House of 47 
Frothingham, Historian 18, 19, 3C, 38, 41, 03 

Frothingham's History of Charkstown L6, 

36, 37, 38 

Frothingham, Nathaniel 30 

Frothingham, Richard, Jr. 97 

Frothingham, Samuel 30 

Furber, Hon. William H. 100 

Galletly Rope-Walk, The -44" 

Gage, General 79 

Gardner, Col. 94, 90 

Garrison, William Lloyd 104 

Garton, Rev. J. Vanor 70 

Geary, Captain Benjamin 01 

General Court of Massachusetts, The 41, 52 

General Court of Mass. Colony, The 19 

Geneva 10 

George III. 7 l J 

Gerrish, Colonel 94 
Gilman, Charles E., Town Clerk, Somer- 

ville 43, 44 

Gilman, Charles E., Farm of 43 

Gilman Square, Sornervilk 43 

Gilman Street, Somerville ' 43, 44 

Glen Street, Somerville 44 
Glines, Hon. Edward, Address by 

77, 80, 

87, 92, 93 

37, 39, 40 





Goff' s Falls, N. H. 

Goldthwaite, S. 

Goodwin, Xtopher, Jr. 

Gore, Christopher 

Gould, Thomas 

Gow, Rev. John R. 

Granary Burial Ground 

Grant, General 7 

Greaves, Thomas GO 

Greene, John 19 

Greene, General Nathaniel 78, 80, 87, 95 

Greenville Street, Somerville 45 

Gridley, Colonel 90 

Griffin's Falls 50 

Guild, Lieutenant Governor Curtis, Jr. 

Address by 77, 79, 80, 87, 92, 93 

Guild House, The 44 

Hadley, Henry K. 77 

Hadiey, Mass. 58 

Hadley, S. Henry 41,77 

Hadley, Samuel D. 44 

Hale, Robert 17 

Hall, Andrew 52 

Hall, Benjamin 52 

Hall, Dudley 50 

Hall, Ebenezer f 2, 63,56 

Hall, Ebenezer, Jr. 52 

Hall, Willis 52 

Hammond, Lawrence, Recorder 34 

Hancock, Governor John 62 

Hancock, , Schoolmaster, 1724 05 

Harper's Magazine 3 

Harpswell, Me. 103 

Harrington Family, The 40 
Harvard College 2, 8, 19, 33, 34, 68, 69, 

00, 61, 02, 05 
Harvard College, Charlestown Graduates 

of Previous to 1701 00 

Harvard Graduates, Sibley 37 

Haven, George 47 

Hawes, Frank Mortimer 15, 32, 58 

Hay, William, Schoolmaster, 1721 05 

Hayden, Joseph O. 0, 74 

Hayes, John S. 2 

Hayes, John S., Addresses of 2 

Hearse House, The 42 

Hertford County, England 19 

Heyman, Samuel 

Heymond, Samuel 

Highland Avenue, Somerville 

Hill, Colonel Herbert E. 

Hinckley, Mrs. James II. 

Historical Sketch of Old Middlesex Can. 

Hooksett Locks and Canal 

Horn Pond, Wohum 

Huguenots, The 

Hunt, M. Agnes 

Hunt, Rev. Samuel 

Hutchinson Collection, The 

Hutchinson, Mrs. Jacob T, 

Indian Wars, The 

Inman House, The, Cambridge 

Ipswich Female Seminary 

Ipswich, Mass. 

Ireland, Shadrach 

Israel Putnam and Bunker Hill 

Israel Putnam and Prospect Hill 

Jackson, George Russell 

Jaques, Samuel 

Jennor( Jenner), Elizabeth 

John Abbot Lodge 

Kernbk, Miss 


Kettell, Deacon Joseph 

King's Chapel, Boston 

King Philip's War 

00, 62 


22, 45 



50, 57 


10, 11, 12 


103, KM 






20, 40 




53, 55 











8, 9. 2f 



King William 

Rutland, Susanna 

Knapp, Mrs. O. S. 

Knowlton, Captain 

Ladies' Repository, The 

Lake Chimplain 

Lake Sunapee 

Lake Wiunepesaukee 

Landgrave of Hesse 

Larion, Johannah 

Larion, Louis 

Lathrop, Ellen 

Lathrop, Rev. Thomas L. 

Latin Sihoolhouse, Boston 

Leathe, Edwin 

Lechmere Point, Cambridge 

Lee, General Charles 


Leonard, Chaplain 

Lexington, Mass. 0, 

Lexington, Battle of 

Lexington Common 

Libbey, Mrs. Ratherine B. W. 

Libbey, Mrs. Katherine B. W., Writin 

00, 07, 08 
Liberal Institute, Litchheld, Me. 108 

Lincoln, Abraham 7 

Lincoln Schoolhouse, Somerville 27 

Linn, Abigail 13 

Lisbon Falls, Me. 162 

Litchfield, Me. 102 

Literary Men and Women of Somerville 1, 

Little Washington Village, N. C. 
Long, Joshua 
Long, Michael 
Longfellow, Professor 
Lord, Joseph 
Loring, Mrs. Ernest L. 
Louis XIV. 

Lovell's Island 17,35. 39, 

Lowden, Constable 
Lowe, Mrs. Martha Perry 
Lowe, Mrs. Martha Perry, Works of 68, 69, 


87, 94 


S, 73, 78 






Lowell, Mass. 

49, 51 

Lowell R. R., The 


Lower Canada 


Lucas, England 


Lynde, Elizabeth 


Lynde, Lieutenant Colonel Joseph 


Lynde, Mary 


Lynde, Nicholas 


Lyons, France 


Lyrion, Jane 
Macon, Ga. 

J 3 

Maidstone, Kent, England 


Makerwhit, Elizabeth 


Maiden, Mass. 15, Gi 

79, 81 

Mallet, Andrew, Son of Andrew 


Mallet, Elizabeth, Daughter of Andrew 

14, 15 

Mallet, Ephraim 


Mallet, Ephraim, Son of Ephraim 


Mallet Family, Gravestones of 


Mallet, Isaac, Son of Andrew 


Mallet, Jean, Legacies of 

Mallet, Martha, Daughter of Andrew 



Mallet, Mary, Daughter of Andrew 
Mallet, Michael, Son of Andrew 



Mallet, Phoebe, Daughter of Andrew 


Manakin, Va. 


Manchester, N. H. 


Mandell, John 


Mansfield, Col. 


Mansfield, , Schoolmaster 


Marshall Street, Somerville 


Maryland, Riflemen of 


Massachusetts Bay Colony 


Massachusetts Senate 


M. V. M. 5th Regiment, Company B 


M. V. M. 24th Regiment, Company D 


Mather, Dr. Cotton 

20, 33 

Mather, Samuel 


May Pole, The, Charlestown 
McKay, Eliza J. 



McKay, George 


McKay, George E. 


McKay, Jane 


McKay, Mary M., Death of 


Medford Bridge 


Medford, Mass. 15, 53 

55, 56 

Medford River 

53, 54 

Medford Street, Somerville 


Merrill's Falls 


Merrimac Canals, Abandonment of 


Merrimac River 19, 49 — 57 

Merrimac River, Canals of 49 

Mico, Ann 13 

Middlesex Canal, The 49, 50, 51, 52, 57 

Middlesex Canal, Act of Incorporation of - r >2 
Middlesex Canal, Aqueducts of 58 

Middlesex Canal, Bridges of 58 

Middlesex Canal, Charter of 52 

Middlesex Canal, Cost of 58 

Middlesex Canal, Dimensions of 58 

Middlesex Canal, Laborers, Pay of 58 

Middlesex Canal, Lock of 58 

Middlesex Canal, Meeting of Directors of 53 
Middlesex Canal, Opening of 49 

Middlesex Canal, Proprietors of 52 

Middlesex Village 49, 57 

Middletown, Conn. 
Milford, Conn. 
Miller, James 
Mills, Samuel 
Miles, Rev. John 



43, 44 


Minute Men, The 

Mist'ick Side Schoolhouse 

Moore, Abraham M. 
Moor's Falls 
Morley, Catharine 
Morley, John, Schoolmaster, 1652 
Moiley, Ralph 
Morris, Martha 
-Morton, Nicholas 
Moulton's Point 

Mount Pkasant Street, Somerville 
Mousall, Ralph 
Moyhm, Colonel Stephen 
Moylan's Dragoons 
Munroe, Charles 
Munroe Estate, The 
Munroe, Louisa 
Munster, Ireland 
J\l j - ili Pond 

Miles ( Myles), Samuel, Schoolmaster, 1CS4 

37, 38 

Mystic River 52, 56, 79, 82, 86, 90 

Myles ( Miles) Samuel, Schoolmaster, 1684 

37, 38 

Nashua & Lowell R. R. 56 

Nashua River 50 

Nashua Village 50,51 

Nathap Tufts Park 66 

Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 23 

Navigation on the Merrimac 49 

Necrology Committee, Report of 22 

Neighborhood Sketch, No. 6 42 

Newbury, Mass. 40 

Newell, "John 36 

New England Bank, Boston 43 

" New England," Neal 42 

" New England's Crisis," Thompson 34 

New Haven, Conn. 20 
New Rochelle, N. Y. j, 12, 13 

Nixon, Col. 94 

Normandy, France 10, 12 

North, Charles H, 45 

North Church, Boston 33 

North Chelmsford, Mass. 65 

North End School, Boston 62 

North Weymouth, Mass. 4 

Norton, John 34 

Nowell, Alexander 60 

Nowell, Samuel 60 

New York City 7 

New York Independent, The 6 
( )ffic« rs Somerville Historical Society 24, 4S, 72 

" Old Landmarks of Middlesex " 87 
Old Middlesex Canal, Historical Sketch of 49 
Old Mill, The 13,66,81 

Old Pound, The 26 

Oliver Street, Somerville 44 

" Only A Keepsake " 9 

Otis Street, Somerville 44 

Oxford, Mass. PJ 

Paint , William 64 

Parker, Ebenezer, Schoolmaster, 1725 G."> 

Parks, Thomas 3.^' 

Pay son. Prudence 33 

Pearl Street, Somerville 44 

P.ellock's Island IS 

" Pencillings," Somerville Journal B 
" Peninsula. The," Charlestown 

Pennsylvania, Riflemen of 80 

Perkins, Puke SC 

Perkins Street, Someiville 4l 

Philadelphia, Peim. 7 

Phillips, Lieutenant Eleazer 4 




Phillips, Wendell 104 

Phips, Samuel, Schoolmaster, 1G74 34, 30, 

38, 41, GO 
Phipps, Emma CI 

Phipps, Katherine ( Brackenbury ) 35 

Phipps, Captain Samuel 61, 63 

Phipps, Solomon 21, 34 

Pillsbury, Harry N. GG 

Pillsbury, L. B. GG, 74 

Pillsbury, Mrs. Mary A. 06 

Piscataquog River "50 

Piscataquog Village^ 50 

Plymouth Colony, The' 81 

Plymouth, Mass. 7 

Plymouth Rock 78 

Pomeroy, General Seth 90 

Pomfret, Conn. 88 

Poole, Captain Jonathan 76 

Pope School, The 4G 

Porter, Jonathan 52, 53 

Potomac Canals, The 54 

Pottery, The, Somerville 44 

Powder House, The 13,81 

Prescott, Col. . 86, 89, 90, 91, 93, 98, 99 

Prescott Street, Somerville 22, 4~ 

Pritchard Family, The 47 

Private Schools, Charlestown 60 

Prospect Hill 15, 25, 73, 92 

Prospect Hill Church 104 

Prospect Hill Line of Intrenchments, Som- 
erville, Marking of 82 
Prospect Hill Monument 82, 8r» 
Prospect Hill Park Celebration, The 73 
Prospect Hill Park, Dedication of 73 
Prospect Hill Park, Dedication Programme 

of 77 

Prospect Hill Tower, Commemorative 

Prospect Hill Schoolhouse 
Prospect Street, Somerville 
Putnam, Rev. Dr. A. P. 
Putnam, Daniel 
Putnam, General Israel 
Putnam, Israel, Jr. 
Putnam's Flag 
Quarry Hill 
Queen Mary 
Quincy, Mass. 
" Rainbow, The " 
Randall, Mary L. 
Reading, Mass. 
Reed, General 

Reformation The 

Rehoboth, Mass. 

Rehoboth Baptist Church 

Revere, Paul 

Revocation, The 

Revolutionary War, The 

Richardson's Mill 

Robinson, Martha 

" Rose of Sharon, The " 

Rouen, France 

Roxbury, Mass. 

Runey, Horace 

Runey, James S. 

Runey, John 

Runey, John, House of 

Runey, Mrs. Maria M. 

Russell, Daniel 

Russell, Frank 

Russell, James, Recorder 

Russell, Thomas 

Rymes, Christopher E. 

Saint Lawrence River 

Salem, Mass. 40 

Sanborn, David, House of 47 

Sanborn, David, Jr., House of 47 

Sanborn, Mrs. David 47 

Sandwich, England 16 

Sanitary Commission, The 103 

.Saratoga 86 

Sargent Ave., Somerville 44 

Sawyer, Mrs. Caroline M. '11 
Sawyer, Mrs. Caroline M., Poems of 27, 28, 

29, 30, 31 

Sawyer, Dr. T. J. 27 

Scammans, Col. 94 
School Near Reading, First Outside " The 

Peninsula " t>4 

School, I 1 irst, Charlestown 15 
School 1'und, Charlestown, Beginnings of 17 

Schoolhouse, Town Hill, Description of 64 

School Street, Boston 13 

School Street, Somerville 44 

Scituate, Second Parish of 1G 

Scott, Mrs. Julia H. 27 

Schuyler, Philip 95 

Sedgwick, Major 17, 18 

Sewall, Judge 19, '20 

Sewall, Samuel 34 

Shedd Place, The 46, 47 

Shepard, Isaac F. 3 

Shepard, Rev. Thomas 32, 34 

Ship Hercules lti 

Siege of Boston 80 

Sigouniey Family, The 12 

Simsbury, Conn. 19 

Skilton, George 43 

Skilton, John 43 

Skilton Place, The 4:t 

Sodegonock 19 

74, 75, 76 

Somerville Chapter, F. A. M. 
Somerville During Siege of Boston 
Somerville Historical Society 1 


46, 47 







85, 102, 104 


Somerville Historical Society, Officers of 

78 — 99 




Somerville Hospital 



Somerville Journal 


76, K") 


Somerville, Mass. 

" Somerville Past and Present" 




7, 66 

Somerville Public Library 



Somerville Water Board 



Southampton, N. Y. 



" Spinning Schools," Charlestown 
Sprague, Ralph 





Stark, General 



Stair, Comfort 



State House, Boston 


27, 78 

Stedman, John 



Stilson, William 


15, 79 

Stone Building, The 



Stone Family, The, House Owned by 



Stoneham, Mass. 


9, 25. '27 

Stoneham, Mass., Set off, 1725 



Storer, Ebenezer 



Stow, Elizabeth (Biggs) 
Stow, John 





Stow, Nathan, Orderly Book of 

95, 96 

4 1,45 

Stow, Rev. Samuel, Schoolmaster, 

16.') 1 

18, 19 


Stowers, Joanna 



Stow eis, Richard 



Stratford, Conn. 



Stratum, John 



Sudbury, Mass. 

r ." 


Sudbury, Mass., Causeway 



Sullivan, General 

49, hi 

Sullivan, James 

49, 5J 




Sullivan, John Langdon 


Sumner, Charles 
Swan, Caleb 

8, 104 


Swan, Mary (Lamb) 
Swan, Samuel 


52, 53 

Swan, Thomas, Schoolmaster, 



Swan, Thomas 

58, 59 

Swan, Dr. Thomas 




Swett, Constable 


Swett, Colonel Samuel 


Sycamore Street, Somerville 


Symms's River 

53, . c 4 

Symmes, Zechariah 


Tarbox, Dr. Increase N. 


Taylor, George, Schoolmaster 



Thacher, Peter 


Thompson, Anna 


Thompson, Benjamin, Schoolmaster, 

32, 33, 34 
53, 65 

Thompson, Samuel 

Thompson, Susanna 


Thompson, Rev. William 


Thonung, Nancy 
Thorp, Ira 

6, 2=> 


Thurston Street, Somerville 


Topsham, Me. 


Town Hill 

21, 34, m 

Town Hill School 


Town Pound, The 


Towne Residence, The 


Treadway, Josiah 


Tufts College 


Tufts College Divinity School 


Tufts, Peter, Jr. 


Tufts, Thomas, Schoolmaster, 



Tylor, Edward 


yTyngsboro, Mass. 


Tyngs Island 

50, 57 

Union Flag, The 

93, 05 

Union Flag, Raising of, on P 
Union Locks and Canal 


Hill 78 


Union Square, Somerville 


Unitarian Church, The 


United Provinces of North America, 

The 95 

Unity Club, The 


" Universalist, The " 


Veazie, William 


Veazie, William, House of 


"Ventilation of Schoolhouses, 



Vieaux, Daniel 


Vinal, Anna Parker 




Virginia, Riflemen of 


Wade, Jonathan, Jr. 


Wade, Prudence 




Walnut Hill 


Walnut Street, Somerville 


, 27, 43, 44 

Walpole, Mass. 103 

War of 18114, Effect of on Middlesex Canal 57 

Ward, Hon. Arte'raus 
Ward, General 
Ward, Robert, Si . 
Ward. Robert, Schoolmaster, 1719 
V> arren Institution for Savings 
Washington, General 
Washington Street, Somerville 
" Wa ihington Street as It Was" 
Watch Tower, Charlestown 
Waterways, Inland, Mass. 
W . ter, Daniel 
Weiss, Charles 
Weld, Thomas 
Wendell, Oliver 
Wenham, Mass. 
Westboro, I.iass. 
West Killingly, Conn. 
Wesum Family, The, Reading 
Weston, Samuel 
West Somerville Baptist Church 
White, Gideon 
White, Dr. Horace Can- 
White, Rhoda (Springer) 
Whittemore, Joseph 
Whittier, John G. 
Williams, Charles 
Willoughby, Francis 
Wilmington, Mass. 
Wilson, Henry 
Wilson, Martha 
Wind-mill Hill, Charlestown 
Windsor, Vt. 

Winter 11 ill Congregational Church 
Winthrop, Governor 
Winthrop, James 
Wiscassee Falls, Canal at 
Wiscassee Locks 

Wissell, , Schoolmaster 

Wi .'.ell, Rev. [chabod 61 

Wiswell (Wiswall), Peleg, Schoolmaster, 

170) 62 

Wiswell, Priscilla f Peabody ) 62 

VVitherell, Rev. William, Schoolmaster, 

1636 61 

Withered!, Rev. William, Compensation of 16 
Woburn, Mass. 14, 53,54 

Wood, Alexander, Place of 45 

Woodbridge, Col. 94 

Worcester Academy 100 

Wordsworth 31 

Wyer, Robert 62 

Wyman, Constant (Starr) . 19 

Wym.m's History.ol Charlestown 19, 20, 61, 66 
Yeaton, Herbert Pierce 40 

Yorkshire, England 11 

Young Men's Christian Association, Boston 4 
Youth's Compani n, The 3 


89, 92, 94 
78, 94, 95, 98 
100, 101 


54, 65 



101, 102 


61, 62 













50, 57 


6147 X